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BI 338 - Invertebrate Zoology

Primary Sources

In the science disciplines, primary sources are largely research studies that contain a materials, methods, and results section describing an experiment or observation performed by the authors. This type of research is usually indexed in specialized subject databases such as Biological Sciences Collection, and published as articles in scholarly journal publications such as 'Zoological Science' .  Through journal subscriptions, Saint Anselm College has access to almost 100 journals related to invertebrates, and many of them publish primary source material. Search the following databases to access specific articles within these and other journals.

Academic Search Premier

  • Multidisciplinary
  • Lots of full-text
  • Some articles are scholarly
  • Good place for secondary source or general readings

Biological Sciences (CSA)

  • Highly specialized for biology
  • No full text
  • All material is scholarly
  • Interlibrary loan may be needed for many
  • Good place for primary source materials


  • Highly specialized for biological sciences
  • Full-Text Access to over 80 scholarly journals
  • Includes tables, illustrations and graphs

Google Scholar

  • Multi-disciplinary
  • Accesses scholarly publications of all types
  • Interlibrary loan is needed to access most
  • Includes helpful "Cited By" references


  • Full text access to over 200 biology journals
  • Latest 5 years not included
  • Highly specialized for biology
  • Good place for primary source materials

ProQuest Biology Journals

  • Covers all aspects of biological science
  • ALL full- text

In some cases, the database will provide links to the full text of articles. If you see a WebBridge button next to an article of interest, click it to determine whether the journal is available in the Geisel Library or in full text via another electronic database. WebBridge will also help you request articles through Interlibrary Loan if they aren't available through our library. If there is no WebBridge button, search for the journal's availability using the Journal Finder. Journals listed as being in "Geisel Library Paper Holdings" are shelved alphabetically by journal title on the Lower Level of the library.


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Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are materials that provide interpretations, explanations, and descriptions of primary sources. Secondary sources are often published as books and book chapters, but they can also appear as journal articles.  Some examples of secondary sources are review articles (summarize the literature available on a subject), reports from the news or other media, and reference works.  Reference works are useful for getting background information or for identifying additional resources on a subject. Here below is a selected list of reference works which pertain to invertebrates. There may be other appropriate reference sources:

  • Animal Ref QL45.2 .A56
  • Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life  Ref QL120 .E53 1985
  • Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Ref QH541.15 .B56 E53 2001
  • Encyclopedia of Evolution  Ref QH360.2 .E54 2002
  • Encyclopedia of Insects  Ref QL462.3 .E49 2003
  • Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behaviour  Ref QL364.2 .P74 1993
  • Encyclopedia of Underwater Life
  • A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds... Ref QH95.7 .G67
  • Grzimek Animal Life Encyclopedia
  • Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity  Ref QL473 .M34 2006
  • Marine Life: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea  Ref QL121 .G4
  • Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology

In addition to the reference materials, general book materials also provide helpful secondary source reading.  To locate books or chapters on specific topics consult the following:

Geisel Library Catalog
Use to locate books housed in Geisel Library.  

A database that allows you to search the collections of libraries throughout the United States.

Over 40,000 electronic books are accessible to SAC users through this Ebrary subscription.


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Find Scientific Reviews

Scientific reviews, an important secondary source,  critically survey a narrowly defined topic in a discipline. Most often, scientific reviews appear in annual publications entitled "Annual review of ...", "Advances in ..." and in journals, especially those which have "review" as part of the title. Many of them are available full-text online.

As part of a strategy, review papers are an excellent "research tool" to use since they pull together information on the existing "state of the art" of a specific topic. Check out the latest few years for review literature on your topic in the Annual Review Database, which includes annual reviews for cell biology, ecology, entomology, physiology, microbiology and more.


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Library Classification Numbers

Many of the print book materials on invertebrate subjects fall within the QL call number range (Zoology). It might be helpful to browse the stacks in the following ranges for your particular area of interest, checking Tables of Contents and Indexes at end for more specific info.

QL 360–599 Invertebrates
QL 360–364 General Works (including Classification, Development & Behavior)
QL 365–374.2 Protozoa; Porifera [sponges]
QL 375–385.2 Coelenterata; Ctenophera; Echinodermata
QL 386–394 Worms and other Vermiform Invertebrates
QL 395–400.5 Brachiopoda [lamp shells]; Bryozoa; Ectoprocta
QL 401–432 Mollusca
QL 434–599.82 Arthopoda [crustacea, arachnida, insects]


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Search Tips

The following search tips are effective in searching both the book and journal databases, unless otherwise specified.

  • Connect your search words and phrases with Boolean operators. Example: jellyfish and (poison or venom or sting)
  • Use truncation symbols (usually an asterisk) to bring up results containing all forms of a word. Example: jellyfish* and (poison* or venom* or sting*)
  • Use broad terms when searching for general information on a topic. Example: marine animals and (poison* or venom* or sting*)
  • Use more narrow terms when searching for highly specific information. Example: irukandji or carukia barnesi or box jellyfish
  • Look for Subject Headings (sometimes called Descriptors) that are appropriate to your inquiry and search on those (usually they are hyperlinked). Some useful subject headings that show up in book databases are:
Animal colonies Shellfish
Marine invertebrates Insects
Freshwater invertebrates Parasites
Lake ecology Medical parasitology
Aquatic insects Worms


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Find Scientific Names

Biology Data Book  Ref QH310 .A39
Tables in the appendix of each volume give scientific names and the corresponding common names of all living things.

Encyclopedia of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life, launched in 2008, is a global cooperative effort to fully catalog and describe more than 1.8 million species.

ITIS:  Integrated Taxonomic Information System
This government site provides authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world. Includes over 390,000scientific names and can be accessed by common name or scientific name, whichever is known.

Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms  Ref QH83 .S89 (2 volumes)
This two volume set is arranged into four kingdoms: virus, monera, plantae, and animalia. The second volume contains an index of scientific names.


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Authoritative Websites (A Selected List)


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Citing Sources

Citing Information: CSE/CBE Style

CSE Citation Style Examples

USE "Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers"
Paper copy: Ready Ref T11 .S386

You may want to use EndNote software to help you store your citations and generate footnotes and bibliographies for your final paper.  You can get a copy of EndNote from the IT Help Desk.  For help with getting started, see our user guide and guide to exporting citations from library databases into EndNote.


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