In the science disciplines, primary sources are largely research studies that contain a materials, methods, and results section describing an experiment or observation performed by the authors. This type of research is usually indexed in specialized subject databases such as Biological Sciences Collection, and published as articles in scholarly journal publications such as 'Zoological Science' . Through journal subscriptions, Saint Anselm College has access to almost 100 journals related to invertebrates, and many of them publish primary source material. Search the following databases to access specific articles within these and other journals.
- Lots of full-text
- Some articles are scholarly
- Good place for secondary source or general readings
- Highly specialized for biology
- No full text
- All material is scholarly
- Interlibrary loan may be needed for many
- Good place for primary source materials
- Highly specialized for biological sciences
- Full-Text Access to over 80 scholarly journals
- Includes tables, illustrations and graphs
- Accesses scholarly publications of all types
- Interlibrary loan is needed to access most
- Includes helpful "Cited By" references
- Full text access to over 200 biology journals
- Latest 5 years not included
- Highly specialized for biology
- Good place for primary source materials
- Covers all aspects of biological science
- ALL full- text
In some cases, the database will provide links to the full text of articles. If you see a WebBridge button next to an article of interest, click it to determine whether the journal is available in the Geisel Library or in full text via another electronic database. WebBridge will also help you request articles through Interlibrary Loan if they aren't available through our library. If there is no WebBridge button, search for the journal's availability using the Journal Finder. Journals listed as being in "Geisel Library Paper Holdings" are shelved alphabetically by journal title on the Lower Level of the library.
Secondary sources are materials that provide interpretations, explanations, and descriptions of primary sources. Secondary sources are often published as books and book chapters, but they can also appear as journal articles. Some examples of secondary sources are review articles (summarize the literature available on a subject), reports from the news or other media, and reference works. Reference works are useful for getting background information or for identifying additional resources on a subject. Here below is a selected list of reference works which pertain to invertebrates. There may be other appropriate reference sources:
- Animal Ref QL45.2 .A56
- Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life Ref QL120 .E53 1985
- Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Ref QH541.15 .B56 E53 2001
- Encyclopedia of Evolution Ref QH360.2 .E54 2002
- Encyclopedia of Insects Ref QL462.3 .E49 2003
- Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behaviour Ref QL364.2 .P74 1993
- Encyclopedia of Underwater Life
- A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds... Ref QH95.7 .G67
- Grzimek Animal Life Encyclopedia
- Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity Ref QL473 .M34 2006
- Marine Life: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea Ref QL121 .G4
- Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology
In addition to the reference materials, general book materials also provide helpful secondary source reading. To locate books or chapters on specific topics consult the following:
Geisel Library Catalog
Use to locate books housed in Geisel Library.
A database that allows you to search the collections of libraries throughout the United States.
Over 40,000 electronic books are accessible to SAC users through this Ebrary subscription.
Scientific reviews, an important secondary source, critically survey a narrowly defined topic in a discipline. Most often, scientific reviews appear in annual publications entitled "Annual review of ...", "Advances in ..." and in journals, especially those which have "review" as part of the title. Many of them are available full-text online.
As part of a strategy, review papers are an excellent "research tool" to use since they pull together information on the existing "state of the art" of a specific topic. Check out the latest few years for review literature on your topic in the Annual Review Database, which includes annual reviews for cell biology, ecology, entomology, physiology, microbiology and more.
Many of the print book materials on invertebrate subjects fall within the QL call number range (Zoology). It might be helpful to browse the stacks in the following ranges for your particular area of interest, checking Tables of Contents and Indexes at end for more specific info.
|QL 360–364||General Works (including Classification, Development & Behavior)|
|QL 365–374.2||Protozoa; Porifera [sponges]|
|QL 375–385.2||Coelenterata; Ctenophera; Echinodermata|
|QL 386–394||Worms and other Vermiform Invertebrates|
|QL 395–400.5||Brachiopoda [lamp shells]; Bryozoa; Ectoprocta|
|QL 434–599.82||Arthopoda [crustacea, arachnida, insects]|
The following search tips are effective in searching both the book and journal databases, unless otherwise specified.
- Connect your search words and phrases with Boolean operators. Example: jellyfish and (poison or venom or sting)
- Use truncation symbols (usually an asterisk) to bring up results containing all forms of a word. Example: jellyfish* and (poison* or venom* or sting*)
- Use broad terms when searching for general information on a topic. Example: marine animals and (poison* or venom* or sting*)
- Use more narrow terms when searching for highly specific information. Example: irukandji or carukia barnesi or box jellyfish
- Look for Subject Headings (sometimes called Descriptors) that are appropriate to your inquiry and search on those (usually they are hyperlinked). Some useful subject headings that show up in book databases are:
|Lake ecology||Medical parasitology|
Biology Data Book Ref QH310 .A39
Tables in the appendix of each volume give scientific names and the corresponding common names of all living things.
Encyclopedia of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life, launched in 2008, is a global cooperative effort to fully catalog and describe more than 1.8 million species.
ITIS: Integrated Taxonomic Information System
This government site provides authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world. Includes over 390,000scientific names and can be accessed by common name or scientific name, whichever is known.
Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms Ref QH83 .S89 (2 volumes)
This two volume set is arranged into four kingdoms: virus, monera, plantae, and animalia. The second volume contains an index of scientific names.
- Animal Diversity Web
An online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology.
- Annelid Resources
A guide to information on annelids, current worm research, and researchers.
- Internet Public Library: Invertebrates
Offers links to 10 helpful websites.
- Invertebrates Collection Database: Mollusks
This extremely specialized Web site is based on a database containing the mollusk collection at the Field Museum of Chicago.
- Natural History Resources
From the Ernst Mayr Library. Jump to 'Invertebrates'.
Classification and other basic information about sponges.
- Tree of Life
This site provides information about the diversity of organisms, their evolutionary history, and characteristics.
Citing Information: CSE/CBE Style
CSE Citation Style Examples
USE "Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers"
Paper copy: Ready Ref T11 .S386
You may want to use EndNote software to help you store your citations and generate footnotes and bibliographies for your final paper. You can get a copy of EndNote from the IT Help Desk. For help with getting started, see our user guide and guide to exporting citations from library databases into EndNote.
Geisel Reference Chat is offline.