This guide is designed to tie in with the class assignment to explore the legal, strategic, and marketing issues related to franchising a seafood restaurant in Canada and the United States. It highlights both library and web-based resources that can offer background information, scholarly discussion, and statistical data that can help you support your recommendations for the business. For further research assistance, please take advantage of the reference services available to you in the Geisel Library. Contact the Reference Desk in person or online at Ask a Librarian.
The following books provide an excellent foundation for your research by describing the franchising process and the factors to consider before making the decision to franchise. These books are particularly valuable since they approach the franchising decision from the perspective of the franchising restaurant, rather than from the perspective of the individual considering buying a franchise.
Be sure to examine the bibliographies at the end of each source, since these will point you to additional books and journal articles that may be of interest. Some of these will be in our collection, but if the "perfect" book/article is not here at Geisel, don't hesitate to request it from another library through our Interlibrary Loan service. Articles often arrive within 3-4 days, while books generally arrive within 1-2 weeks.
Encyclopedia of Business (see entry on Franchising)
REF HF1001 .E466
Franchise Bible: How to Buy a Franchise or Franchise
Your Own Business
Reserve Desk HF5429.235.U5 K478
Franchising and Licensing: Two Powerful Ways to
Grow Your Business in Any Economy
Reserve Desk HF5429.235.U5 S54
Franchising: Pathway to Wealth Creation
Reserve Desk HF5429.23 .S67
The Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship (see chapter on Franchising)
Reserve Desk HD62.5 .B94
Although the Geisel Library's collection on business franchising is relatively small, you shouldn't feel limited to using books held here. By searching Worldcat (an online catalog encompassing the holdings of thousands of libraries worldwide), you can identify relevant books owned by other colleges. Inside most of the individual book records is a link enabling you to request the book via Interlibrary Loan; all you need to do is input your name and contact information, and submit the request.
One strategy to exploring Worldcat is to perform Subject searches on established subject headings. This will retrieve the records of all the books that have been assigned your subject headings; in other words, your search results are likely to all be pertinent to your topic. Try searching some of the following Subjects (and be sure to omit the dashes when you paste these into the search box):
Franchises (Retail Trade) — United States
Franchises (Retail Trade) — Law and Legislation
Food Industry and Trade — Canada
Food Industry and Trade — United States
You may wish to combine these Subject search terms with keywords such as Canada, seafood, restaurants, or marketing. General keyword searching (without use of the Subject search) may also unearth materials of interest.
Geisel Library has online subscriptions to four journals specifically about the franchising business: Business Franchise, Franchise Buyer, Franchise Times, and Franchising World. You may wish to browse through these periodicals by searching for them in the Journal Finder and clicking in the links to the online versions of these journals.
But there are a wide range of more generalized scholarly journals, popular magazines, and trade-press periodicals (i.e., periodicals targeted toward companies in specific industries) that regularly publish articles about business franchising. These articles may offer insider perspectives on the pros and cons of franchising, analyses of successful or failed franchises, or news items on the latest franchising initiatives by other restaurant chains (which can suggest where the hot markets might be).
Business Source Premier
The best place to search the business periodical literature is Business Source Premier, which indexes articles (many of which are available online in full-text) from business journals and the trade press. You will find many interesting articles on franchising by doing basic keyword searching, using the Boolean operator "AND" to link together terms representing different concepts. For example, search franchis* AND restaurants (note that the asterisk is a wildcard that can stand in for one or more characters; this will pick up articles with words such as franchise, franchises, and franchising). Make use of the limiters across the top of the search results screen to narrow your focus to Academic Journals (to get scholarly treatments), Magazines (for popular magazine articles), or Trade Publications (for industry and company news).
To find a higher percentage of relevant results, try doing Subject searching on relevant subject terms such as "Franchises (Retail Trade)," "Restaurants," and "Success in Business." These can also be combined together with the Boolean AND. Once you find useful articles, examine the subject terms in their records and conduct Subject searches on the ones that seem most potentially fruitful. Note that in Business Source Premier, you can simply click on a subject term to conduct a Subject search on it. Also, read the bibliographies of articles to identify additional sources worth tracking down.
Here are some sample articles retrieved from Business Source Premier, all of which are either available in full-text online or in the library's collection.
Baker, N. "Independents Try Franchising."
Castrogiovanni, G.J. & Justice, R.T. "Strategic and Contextual Influences on Firm Growth: An Empirical Study of Franchisors."
Cavaliere, F.J. & Swerdlow, M.R. "The Pros and Cons of Franchising: Two Views."
Klara, R. "You're Franchising What?"
Riley, J. "Fast Growth Has Its Price."
You may also wish to try keyword searching in these other business-related databases:
LexisNexis Academic Universe: Business
Offers full-text business articles, company financial data, SEC filings, and industry and market news. Try searching the "Business News" and "Industry & Market News" sections.
Access restricted to Saint Anselm College community.
These websites were handpicked for their relevance to your project; they include government pages on franchising regulations and advice for franchisors, statistical sources, and web-based articles describing the advantages and disadvantages of franchising. You may also want to conduct keyword searching for further information about franchising law, market environments, or the seafood restaurant industry in a search engine such as Google. But be sure to look for indications that the site's information is authoritative, objective and reliable; for example, be wary of websites trying to sell how-to books on franchising or convince people that franchising is a sure path to instant fortune.
Government Information - Canada
There are currently no federal regulations in Canada governing business franchise activity, and only two provinces have such regulations (see below). However, the standard regulations for operating a business apply to new franchisees; these vary by province.
Arthur Wishart Act and Arthur Wishart Regulations (Ontario)
Ontario's law regulating franchise disclosure and its implementing regulations, passed in 2000.
Franchises Act and Franchises Regulation (Alberta)
Alberta's law regulating franchise disclosure, originally passed in 1995, and the regulations that implement it.
Checklists for Franchisees
This guide prepared by Canada Business goes over the issues that franchisees should consider when launching a new franchise. Although it's more valuable to potential buyers, it still raises many issues that a franchising restaurant must account for.
Starting a Restaurant
A massive web resource by the Canada Business agency, with a lengthy explanation of the process of opening a restaurant in Canada, including links to restaurant statistics and market research guides.
Government Information - United States
The majority of states still have no regulations restricting franchise operations, but the federal government has established the FTC Franchise Rule pertaining to franchise disclosure requirements, and 15 states have their own additional franchising regulations.
Consumer Guide to Buying a Franchise (Small Business Administration)
Written more as a cautionary guide to franchise buyers, but provides insight into the issues that potential franchisors must consider before taking the plunge.
Franchise and Business Opportunities (Federal Trade Commission)
Links to reports, laws, and regulations pertaining to business franchising. Also scroll up to see lists of which states have disclosure requirements on franchises and general business opportunities, and contact info for the agencies overseeing them.
Uniform Franchise Offering Circular (NASAA)
While not a government document, this form was developed by the North American Securities Administrators Association to help franchisors ensure compliance with the requirements of the Franchise Rule.
Searching for "franchise disclosure law" in the government's official search engine will help you locate examples of franchise investment regulations passed by individual states. Click on the By Agency tab at left to see links to franchise laws for California, New York, Washington, and others. Again, see the FTC site below to identify the 15 states that have such regulations.
Government Information - Market Research
Doing effective market research is perhaps the most challenging task facing businesses looking to expand their operations or offer franchises. This may involve examining community demographics, assessing the presence of competitors, and investigating the tax and regulatory climate of potential sites, among other things. The websites below offer statistical information that might help identify fruitful markets. Also check the rankings of the best places in the US to do business, which are often fertile ground for entrepreneurs.
Best Cities for Doing Business (Inc Magazine)
Best Places for Business and Careers (Forbes Magazine)
These annual rankings by major business magazines can point to the most favorable cities for new businesses or franchises, as they highlight places with fast population growth, low costs of doing business, and high educational attainment, among other factors.
Canada Business Start-Up Assistant (Canada Business)
Choose a province and access a wealth of information on starting a business franchise there, using the menus on the left side of the page. This information includes market guides, economic and demographic statistics (see the Market Research section), and relevant regulations for each province.
This website offers nice summaries of the latest demographic information, including well-formatted charts, tables and rankings of states, counties, AND metro areas by major Census demographic variables. Again, this might help identify good markets, especially with data down to the county and city level.
Consumer Expenditure Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
Data on spending patterns on various consumer goods and services, with data by US region, race, age, income level, and other factors. Spending at restaurants is classified as "Food away from home."
Demographic Data (U.S. Census Bureau)
Data on population characteristics that could be used in conjunction with the Consumer Expenditure Survey data to identify potential markets for a new restaurant franchise.
Franchise Organization Websites
Canadian Franchise Association
International Franchise Association
There are numerous articles and sites on the Web giving advice about franchising, but most are targeted toward individuals thinking of buying a franchise, and many others seem designed as a lead-in to selling franchise consulting services. The articles below talk with credibility about the franchising process, including highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of franchising a business. You should be able to find others through keyword searching in Google or other search engines.
Henricks, M. "Franchise Your Business."
See the library's Citing Sources guide for resources on how to properly cite research materials. Always confirm the style required by your instructor.