Saint Anselm College

BI338 Invertebrate Zoology, Fall 2011

Brian K. Penney, Ph.D.

Goulet 2320, Ph 641-7149, email: bpenney (at) anselm.edu
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Lophophorates


  1. List features shared among lophophorate phyla, briefly discussing features that may not be unique shared features
  2. List and briefly discuss the features that indicate an intermediate position for lophophorates between Protostomes and Deuterostomes

    [replaces the normal question of "list and discuss general animal characters seen in phylum, so this will not be asked individually of lophophorate phyla]


  3. Name and describe features of Bryozoa

    (= Ectoprocta; ca. 4,000 ppp.). Marine and freshwater colonial suspension feeders.


  4. Diagram and label a saggital section through a typical bryozoan
  5. Name and describe features of Phoronida
  6. Diagram and label a saggital section through a typical phoronid

    B2 Fig 21.2E (note split section)


  7. Name and describe features of Brachiopopda

    (ca. 300 spp.) Marine bivalved filter feeders.


  8. Diagram and label a saggital section through a typical brachiopod

    -B2 Fig 21.19A


  9. Describe how lophophorates approach the basic functions of animals, indicating where appropriate differences among these phyla
    1. Movement in Lophophorates ()
    2. Support in Lophophorates ()
    3. Feeding in Lophophorates (Carolyn)
      • The lophophore surrounds the mouth and is an upstream collecting system for suspension feeding.
      • Food particles are brought through the tentacles and trapped in a mucus lining.
      • The gut is U-shaped with the anterior mouth at the center of the lophophore.
      • The anus, where present, is also anterior, but is dorsal to the mouth.
      • Food is moved through the U shaped gut by cilia.
      • Major digestion occurs intercellular in the stomach.
    4. Reproduction in Lophophorates ()
    5. Circulation in Lophophorates (Molly)
      • They contain an extensive circulatory system comprising two major longitudinal vessels between which blood is exchanged in the lophophoral and stomachic ends of the body. The capillary ceca brings blood close to the gut wall and other organs. Blood flows through vessels through hemal spaces. Blood is moved through the circulatory system largely by muscular action of the blood vessel walls.
      • Nutrients are picked up from the stomach by the circulatory fluid and transported throughout the body. The tentacles are also the most important site of gas exchange.

      [IS THIS TRUE OF ALL THREE PHYLA?]

    6. Gas exchange in Lophophorates ()
    7. Excretion/water balance in Lophophorates ()
    8. Growth and development in Lophophorates ()
    9. Sensation and coordination in Lophophorates (Molly)
      • Nervous system is diffuse and lacks a distinct cerebral ganglion. Most is associated with the body wall. Simple sensory neurons arise from the epidermis, singly or in bundles, and extend the body surface as the only receptor structures.

      [BRYOZOA HAVE GANGLION? COORDINATON AMONG ZOOIDS?]

    10. Defense against predators and pathogens in Lophophorates (BKP)
      • HARD CASINGS FOR ALL PHYLA
      • CHEMICAL DEFENSE KNOWN FOR BRYOZOA


updated: 12/7/11all writing and graphics, copyright Brian K. Penney and the 2008- 2010 years' classes, unless otherwise noted