Saint Anselm College

BI338 Invertebrate Zoology, Fall 2011

Brian K. Penney, Ph.D.

Goulet 2320, Ph 641-7149, email: bpenney (at) anselm.edu
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The final exam essay questions


  1. Draw the phylogeny presented in your textbook, including only the phyla we have studied in class. Pick three branching points and discuss whether you agree or disagree, supporting your opinion based on the characters used to group those phyla together.
  2. EXAMPLE ESSAY: BODY SIZE

    N.B. This is the question I chose because I felt you as a class would be less successful compared to the other questions. While you may not have been able to do this answer, you are perfectly capable of answering the other questions in a similar fashion. Also, this is the maximum answer; you would need most but not all examples to get full points. Most importantly: a) you need to hit all the major contrasts implicit in your question, b) you need to ensure you support those contrasts with real examples, and c) you need to write clearly enough that I can understand what you aer talking about.

    What adaptations typically correlate with being small (interstitial) body size versus larger? Use examples from at least three taxa to support your answer, and explain WHY these adaptations are more appropriate for one lifestyle versus the other.


  3. What adaptations typically correlate with being: a) radially symmetrical vs. bilateral, b) small (interstitial) body size versus larger, or c) parasitic versus free-living? Use examples from at least three taxa to support your answer, and explain WHY these adaptations are more appropriate for one lifestyle versus the other.
  4. Why do you think the “wormish” cylindrical body plan is so successful? Cite 3 different examples of architecturally different variations on the worm plan, and describe their functional morphology.

    These phyla must represent (at least presumably) convergent evolution to this form.


  5. Describe four modes of feeding, and illustrate their effect on morphology using characters from two phyla each.

    These phyla must represent (at least presumably) convergent evolution to this form.


  6. Circulation of nutrients, respiratory gases, and other metabolites can be accomplished by an internal body space or by a blood-vascular system. What is the difference between these two systems, and how do they accomplish this circulation? Cite 2 specific invertebrates (e.g. separate phyla) as examples of each.
  7. Contrast the elements and mechanisms of a hydrostatic skeleton versus a hard (braced-framework) skeleton, using at least three separate examples from the Crustacea, Echinodermata, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Cnidaria. For whichever examples you choose, discuss how well they fit the particular model, and to what degree this skeleton alone is responsible for support and movement.
  8. Describe three modes of movement, and illustrate their effect on morphology using characters from two phyla each. These phyla must represent (at least presumably) convergent evolution to this form.


updated: 12/7/11all writing and graphics, copyright Brian K. Penney and the 2008- 2010 years' classes, unless otherwise noted