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The Divine Comedy: Inferno

by Dante Alighieri (Tr. H.W. Longfellow)

Terms

Contents

Preface

CANTO 1

CANTO 2

CANTO 3

CANTO 4

CANTO 5

CANTO 6

CANTO 7

CANTO 8

CANTO 9

CANTO 10

CANTO 11

CANTO 12

CANTO 13

CANTO 14

CANTO 15

CANTO 16

CANTO 17

CANTO 18

CANTO 19

CANTO 20

CANTO 21

CANTO 22

CANTO 23

CANTO 24

CANTO 25

CANTO 26

CANTO 27

CANTO 28

CANTO 29

CANTO 30

CANTO 31

CANTO 32

CANTO 33

CANTO 34

Notes

Essay

Chronology

 

 

Chronology

Historical Datapoints

May 1265.

Dante, son of Alighieri degli Alghieri and Bella, is born at Florence. Of his own ancestory he speaks in Paradise, Canto XV. and XVI. In the same year, Manfred, king of Naples and Sicily, is defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou. H. XVII.13, and Purg. II. 110 Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sovereignty of Ravenna. H. XVII. 38. Battle of Evesham. Simon de Montfort, leader of the barons, defeated and slain.

1266

Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of the differences of Florence. H. XXIII. 104 Gianni de' Soldanieri heads the populace in that City. H. XXXII. 118. Roger Bacon sends a copy of his Opus Majus to Pope Clement IV.

1268

Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death, and becomes king of Naples. H. XXVIII. 16, and Purg. XX. 66.

1270

Louis IX of France dies before Tunis. His widow Beatrice, daughter of Raymond Berenger, lived till 1295. Purg. VII. 126. Par. VI 135.

1272

Guy de Montfort murders Prince Henry, son of Richard, king of the Romans, and nephew of Henry II of England, at Viterbo. H. XII. 119. Richard dies, as is supposed of grief for this event. Abulfeda, the Arabic writer is born. Henry III of England is succeeded by Edward I. Purg. VII. 129

1274

Our Poet first sees Beatrice, daughter of Folco Portinari. Rodolph acknowledged emperor. Phillip of France marries Mary of Brabant, who lived till 1321. Purg.VI. 24. Thomas Aquinas dies. Purg. XX.67, and Par. X. 96. Buonaventura dies. Par. XII. 26.

1275

Pierre de la Brosse, secretary to Phillip III of France, executed. Purg. VI. 23.

1276

Giotto, the painter, is born. Purg. XI. 95. Pope Adrian V dies. Purg. XIX. 97. Guido Guinicelli, the poet, dies. Purg. XI. 96, and XXVI. 83.

1277

Pope John XXI dies. Par. XII. 126.

1278

Ottocar, king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. VII. 97. Robert of Gloucester is living at this time.

1279

Dionysius succeds to the throne of Portugal. Par. XIX. 136.

1280

Albertus Magnus dies. Par X. 95. Our Poet's firend, Busone da Gubbio, is born about this time. William of Ockham is born about this time.

1281

Pope Nicholas III dies. H. XIX. 71. Dante studies at the universities of Bologna and Padua. About this time Ricordano Malaspina, the Florentine annalist, dies.

1282

The Sicilian vespers. Par. VII. 80. The French defeated by the people of Forli. H. XXVII. 41. Tribaldello de' Manfredi betrays the city of Faenza. H. XXII. 119.

1284

Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by Rugier de Lauria, admiral to Peter II of Arragon. Purg. XX. 78. Charles i, King of Naples, dies. Purg. VII. 111. Alonzo X of Castile dies. He cause the Bible to be translated into Castillian, and all legal instruments to be drawn up in that language. Sancho IV succeeds him.

1284

Phillip (next year IV of France) marries Jane, daughter of Henry of Navarre. Purg. VII. 102.

1285

Pope Martin IV dies. Purg. XXIV. 23. Philip III of France and Peter of Arragon die. Purg. VII. 101 and 110. Henry II, king of Cyprus, comes to the Throne. Par. XIX. 144. Simon Memi, the painter, celebrated by Petrarch, is born.

1287

Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes "The War of Troy." Pope Honorius IV dies.

1288

Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Denmark. Par. XIX. 135. Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of famine. H. XXXIII. 14. The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, commonly called Thomas the Phymer, is living at this time.

1289

Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo, June 11. Purg. V. 90.

1290

Beatrice dies. Purg. XXII. 2. He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans, and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. H. XXI. 92. Guido dalle Conne dies. William, marquis of Montferrat, is made prisoner by his traitorous subject, at Alessandria in Lombardy. Purg. VII. 133. Michael Scott dies. H. XX. 115.

1291

Dante marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom he lives unhappily. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. Can Grade della Scala is born, March 9. H. I. 98. Purg. XX. 16 Par. XVII. 75 and XXVII. 135. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. John D'Acre. H. XXVII. 84. The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. VI. 104, and VII. 91. Alonzo III of Arragon dies, and is succeeded by James II. Purg. VII. 113, and Par. XIX. 133. Eleanor, widow of Henry II, dies. Par. VI. 135.

1292

Pope Nicholas IV dies. Roger Bacon dies. John Baliol, king of Scotland, crowned.

1294

Clement V abdicated the papal chair. H. III. 56. Dante writes his Vita Nuova. Fra Guittone d'Arezzo, the poet, dies. Pirg. XXIV. 56. Andrea Taffi, of Florence, the worker in Mossic, dies.

1295

Dante's preceptor, Brunetto Latini, dies. H. XV. 28. Charles Martel, king of Hungry, visits Florence. Par. VIII. 57, and dies the same year. Frederick, son of Peter III of Arragon, becomes king of Sicily. Purg. VII 117, and Par. XIX. 127. Taddeo, the physician of Florence, called the Hippocratean, dies. Par. XII. 77. Marco Polo, the traveler, returns from the East to Venice. Ferdinand IV of Castile comes to the throne. Par. XIX. 122.

1296

Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg XXIII. 44. Sadi, the most celebrated of the Persian writers, dies. War between England and Scotland, which terminates in the submission of the Scotts to Edward I; but int he following year, Sir William Wallace attempts the deliverance of Scotland. Par. XIX. 121.

1298

The Emperor Adolphus falls in battle with his rival, Albert I, who succeeds him in the Empire. Purg. VI. 98. Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop of Genoa, author of the Legenda Aurea, dies.

1300

The Bianca and Mera parties take their rise in Pistoia. H. XXXII. 60. This is the year in which he supposes himself to see his Vision. H. I. 1. And XXI. 109. He is chosen chief magistrate, or first of the Priors of Florence; and continues in the office from June 15 to August 15. Guido Cavalcanti,ost beloved of our Poet's friends, dies. H. X. 59, and Purg. XI. 96. Cimabue, the painter, dies. Purg. XI. 96.

1301

The Bianca Party expels the Nera from Pistoia. H. XXIV. 142.

1302

January 27. During his absence at Rome, Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the come of 8,000 lire, and condemned to two years banishment. March 10. He is sentencd, if taken, to be burned. Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the Ghibelline party. Purg. XVI 61. Carlino de' Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano Travigne, in Valdarno, to the Florentines. He. XXXII. 67. The French vanquished in the battle of Coufgfal. Purg. XX. 47 James, King of Majorca and Minorea, dies. Par. XIX. 133.

1303

Pope Boniface VIII dies. H. XIX. 55. Purg. XX. 86. ; XXXII. 146, and Par. XXVII. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve, under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. Par. XVII. 61. Robert of Brunne translates into English verse the Manuel de Peches, a treatise written in French by Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln.

1304

Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the city of Florence. May. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. H. XXVI. 9. July 20. Petrarch,whose father had been banished two years before from Florence, is born in Arezzo.

1305

Winceslaus II, king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. VII. 99 and Par. XIX. 123. A conflagration happens at Florence. H. XXVI. 9. Sir William Wallace is executed at London.

1306

Dante visits Padua.

1307 He is in Lunigians with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. Purg. VII. 133; XIX. 140. Dolcino, the fanatic,is burned. H. XXVIII. 53. Edward II of England comes to the throne.

1308

The Emperor Albert I murdered. Purg. VI. 98, and Far. XIX. 114. Corso Donati, Dante's political enemy, slain. Purg. XXIV. 81. He seeks an asylum at Verona, under the roof of the Signori della Scala, Par. XVII. 69. He wanders, about this time. Over various parts of Italy. See his Convito. He is at Paris a second time; and, according to one of the early commentators, visits Oxford. Robert, the patron of Petrarch, is crowned king of Sicily. Par. IX. 2. Duns Scotus dies. He was born about the same time as Dante.

1309

Charles II, king of Naples, dies. Par. XIX. 125. 1310 The order of the Templars abolished. Pur. XX. 94. {?}ean de Meun, the continuer of the Roman de la Rose, dies about this time.

Pier Crescensi of Bologna writes his book on agriculture, in Latin.

1311

Fra Giordan da Rivalta, of Pisa, a Dominican, the author of sermons esteemed for the purity of the Tuscan language, dies.

1312

Robert, king of Sicily, opposes the coronation of the Emperor Henry VII. Par. VIII. 59. Ferdinand IV of Castile dies, and is succeded by Alonzo XI. Dino Compagni, a distinguished Florentine, concluded his history of his own time, written in elegant Italian.

1313

The Emporor Henry of Luxemburgh, bu whom he had hoped to be restored to Florence, dies. Par. XVII. 80, and XXX. 133. Henry is succeeded by Lewis of Bavaria. Dante takes refuge at Ravenna, with Guido Novello da Polenta. Giovanni Boccaccio is born. Pope Clememnt V dies. H. XIX. 86, and Par. XXVII 53, and XXX. 141.

1314

Philip IV of France dies. Purg. VII. 108, and Par. XIX. 117.

1314

Louis X Succeeds. Ferdinand IV of Spain dies. Par. XIX. 122. Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Grande, who makes himself master of Vicenza. Par. IX. 45.

1315

Louis X of France Marries Clemenza, sister to our Poet's friend, Charles Martel, King of {?}Hungary. Par. IX. 2.

1316

Louis X of France dies, and is succeeded by Philip V. John XXIV elected Pope. Par. XXVII. 53. Joinville, tghe French Historian, dies about this time.

1320

About this time John Gower is born, eight years before his friend Chaucer.

1321 July.

Dante dies at Ravenna, of a complaint brought on by disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had been conducting witht he "Venetians, for his patron Guido Novella da Polenta. His obsequies are sumptuously performed at Ravenna by Guido, who himself died in the ensuing year.

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