Lecture Notes for General Biology BI 101 - Cell Biology



I Cellular Biology
	A) Cell = fundamental unit of biology, building block of all organisms
	B) Organisms range from unicellular to multicellular
		1) Unicellular: 1 cell = 1 organism
		2) Multicellular: 1036 cells = 1 organism, different cells for different 
			functions, exhibit division of labor
	C) Diversity of cells
		1) Different types of unicellular organisms (Paramecium and Amoeba)
		2) Different types of cells in multicellular organisms 
			(muscle, skeletal, immune, lungs, epithelium, etc...)
	D) Classification of cells
		1) Two major groups - Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
		2) Differences: Prokaryotes - smaller size, simple structure 
			(no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, DNA in a 
			single strand), primitive (old group of organisms, 
			nearest relatives of first living organisms)
	E) Structural and functional differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Function Eukaryotes Prokaryotes
Isolation (plants and animals)

cell wall (plants)

phospholipid bilayer cell membrane with proteins

same but minor chemical differences
Support cytoskeleton none
Energy (production) chloroplasts (plants)

mitochondrion (Krebs cycle)

chlorophyll but no covering

none (fermentation)

Energy (digestion) lysosomes (aging??) none
Protein Synthesis Rough ER ribosomes only
Fat Synthesis Smooth ER none
Refine Chemical and Storage Golgi apparatus none
Movement cilia and flagella

psuedopod movement

flagella (different)
Reproduction and Control DNA DNA on chromosomes inside nucleus DNA in single strand, DNA floating freely, no nucleus

	F) Movement across cell membranes
		1) Passive transport (no energy)
				diffusion
		2) Active transport
			active transport with ATP
			exocytosis and endocytosis
		3) Effects of tonicity
Tonicity Concentration of materials outside of the Cell compared to inside cell Concentration of materials inside of the Cell compared to outside cell Flow of Water
hypertonic Salts are high/ Water is low Salts are low/Water is high Out of the cell - until equilibrium
hypotonic Salts are low/Water is high Salts are high/ Water is low Into the cell - until equilibrium
isotonic Salts are the same/ Water is the same Salts are the same/ Water is the same In and out of the cell in equilibrium

 

		4) Semi-permeable membrane
	G) Evolution of cellular complexity	
		1) Endosymbiont theory
	H) Evolution of multicellularity
		1) Volvocine line of evolution

unicellular - loose aggregations - colonies - multicellular


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