Lecture Notes for General Biology BI 101 Chemistry



I Chemistry in Biology/Current Applications

A) Ozone - good news and bad news

good news - ozone layer offers protection against UV rays/skin cancer

bad news - pollutant formed from effects of sunlight on hydrocarbons and NO

damages lung tissue, lowers resistance to pneumonia, aggravates bronchitis and asthma

B) Nuclear power, atomic bombs, nuclear accidents, nuclear winter, other chemical accidents

Nuclear power - energy released by chain reaction

C) Acid rain, particularly in northern Canada and eastern Europe

D) Organic pollutants

Pesticides - DDT

Herbicides - dioxin

E) Inorganic Pollutants

Lead, Asbestos, Phosphorous

F) Radioisotopes in medicine

labeling chemicals and finding their targets in the brain

radiotherapy - destroying reproduction in cancer cells

G) Food and Diet - carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids

H) Greenhouse gases - CO2

I) Chemical elements in the human body

J) The Wheels

Household Product Management

Color Designation Product
What you need to Know - Fill in the table below using the wheel
Alternatives (Before Choosing) Alternatives for disposal (If you can't use or share leftovers), Potential Hazard
Blue Home

Mercury Thermometers

Thermostats

     
Blue Home Propane Gas Cylinder      
Green Cleaner Bleach      
Green Cleaner Toilet bowl cleaners      
Blue Paints/Solvents Water-based latex paints      
Blue Paints/Solvents Solvent-based paint products      
Yellow Pesticides Rodenticides      
Yellow Pesticides Flea and tick products      
Red Automotive Automotive batteries      
Red Automotive Used motor oil      

Recycle Arizona

Recyclabe Item
What you need to Know - Fill in the table below using the wheel
Materials (if available) Reduce/Reuse Recycled products
Aluminum cans      
Office-type paper      
Mail      
Newspaper      
Magazines/Catalogues      
Plastic Soft Drink/ Carbonated Beverage Bottles      
Glass bottles/jars      
Tires      
Automotive batteries      

II Basic Chemistry
	A) Hierarchy in Chemistry
	Macromolecules
		Molecules
			Atoms
				Atomic Particles = Protons, Neutrons, e-
	B) Structural Organization of atoms
		1) Nucleus - contains protons and neutrons, 
		2) Shells and orbitals - electrons
		3) valence electrons (Na - 1, C - 4)
	C) Symbols and the Periodic Table
		1) Atomic number = number of protons
		2) Atomic mass = number of protons + number of neutrons

IV Chemical Reactions (from atoms to molecules)
	A) Reactions
		1) Catabolic:  AB -------- A + B + energy
		2) Anabolic: energy + A + B  -------- AB
	B) Chemical behavior - dictated by the number and
		arrangement of electrons in orbitals around the nucleus
		1) valence electrons, number of electrons in the outermost
			shell
	C) Bonds
		1) Ionic (donation of electrons)
			opposite charges attract ions
		2) Covalent (sharing electrons)
		3) Hydrogen (polar molecules with hydrogen)

V Water: Biologically Important Molecules
	A) Most important chemical for living organisms
		most of the cell is composed of water
	B) Special Properties of Water
		1) polarity
		2) good solvent because of its polarity
			2a) example with NaCl
		3) less dense at lower temperatures
	C) Acids and Bases and Water
		1) pH meter used to measure acidity of water solutions
				pH scale
		2) Increase the H+ ion concentration increase the acidity 
			(lowers the pH)
		3) Increase the OH- ion concentration increase the alkalinity
			(raises the pH)

VI Organic Chemistry: Biologically Important Molecules
	A) 4 Major Groups - Polymers: 
		Carbohydrates
		Lipids/Fats
		Proteins
		Nucleic Acids
	B) Process - building polymers = dehydration synthesis
	C) Carbohydrates (sugars)
		1) Building blocks = monosaccharides
			dehydration synthesis yields polysaccharides
		2) function = chemical energy
			a) Examples - glycogen in animals, starch in 
				plants
		3) function = outer covering
			b) Examples = cell wall (cellulose) in plants,
				chitin exoskeleton in insects
	D) Lipids (fats)
		1) building blocks = glycerol and fatty acids
		2) Functions
			a) store energy
			b) also insulation for some marine mammals, 
				exploited for oils (whales and oilbirds, 
				Great Auk, etc...)
			c) building hormones (steroids)
				estrogen
				testosterone
			d) building cell membranes with phospholipids
		3) Problems with fats
			a) Cardiovascular disease (caused by excess intake of 
				animal fats which are saturated fats - solids at room 
				temperature versus plant fats - unsaturated fats 
				which are oils at room temp.)
			b) Cholesterol guidelines from JAMA
	E) Proteins - Organic molecules with amine groups (NH2)
		1) Building blocks = Amino Acids
			some examples (tyrosine, lysine, glutamate)
                        some examples (glycine, valine, phenylalanine)
                        some examples (methionine, proline)
			dehydration synthesis of proteins
		2) Functions
			a) enzymes for chemical reactions in the body, lower the energy of activation
			b) structural: hair, nails, horns, bird feathers,
				muscle proteins, components of blood)
	F) Nucleic Acids (larger than previous 3 molecules) - DNA, RNA
		1) Building blocks = Nucleotides and Nitrogenous bases
			Nucleotide backbone = 5C sugar + phosphate
			Nitrogenous Bases
				Purines and Pyrimidines
				Rules: A - T, C - G for DNA, A - U, C - G for RNA
		2) Function = used to build DNA double helix, code is formed by sequence of 
			different nitrogenous bases


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