Lecture Notes for General Biology BI 101 - Circulatory Systems

I Practical Applications of the Circulatory System	
	A) Blood
		1) Blood groups - A, B, O
			a) AA, AO - A blood
			b) BB, BO - B blood
			c) OO - O blood
			d) AB - AB blood
		2) Histocompatibility - proteins on cell membranes = 
			license plates, unique to each individual
			a) Blood Transfusions
Blood Type Potential Donors
A A, O
B B, O
AB A, B, AB, O (universal acceptor)
O (universal donor) O
			b) blood donation - key facts about donating blood 
				from Health Services (Fall 2001)
		3) Blood doping - cheating with extra blood
			a) athletes give themselves transfusions of their 
				own blood which was taken previous to the 
				event, increases the amount of oxygen 
				to muscle tissue
		4) Anemia - inability of blood to carry oxygen
			a) faulty hemoglobin
			b) fewer red blood cells
		5) Leukemia - disease of blood cell forming tissues
	B) Problems with the Circulatory System
		1) Heart problems
			a) heart attacks - myocardial infarction
				1) clot clogs vessels of the heart
			b) heart murmurs - faulty vales in heart
			c) arrhythmias - abnormal electrical activity in 
				heart muscle tissue
		2) Risk Factors
			a) high cholesterol diet - plaque buildup clogs vessels
			b) high blood pressure (genetic predisposition)
			c) cigarette smoking - nicotine constricts vessels
			d) obesity - extra tissue for heart to pump blood into
	C) Vessel Problems
		1) Varicose veins - due to leaky valves
		2) Raynaud's disease - genetic, abnormal vasoconstriction 
			of vessels in the extremities
	D) Treatments
		1) Angioplasty - balloons used to dislodge clots in heart
		2) CPR - cardiopulmonary resuscitation
			a) start breathing
			b) dislodge clot from heart vessels
		3) Pacemaker - control electrical activity of heart muscle
		4) heart transplant - complete replacement with a new heart
		5) artificial heart (Jarvik-7) - pump and external power source
		6) TPA - enzyme that dissolves clots
		7) bone marrow transplant - replace bone marrow that may 
			be damaged by cancer (site of blood forming tissues)
		8) Diagnosis
			a) stethoscope - heart rate (avg. = 78bpm)
			b) sphygmomanometer blood pressure (avg. = 120/70)
	E) Future Research 
		1) Artificial vessels
		2) Artificial blood 

II Circulatory Systems

	A) Function
		1) Exchange chemicals with tissues
		2) Send messages through the body
	B) Components
		1) Fluids
		2) Vessels
		3) Pump

III Examples of different systems

	A) Plants
		1) 2 tissues
			a) xylem - carry water and nutrients (up)
			b) phloem - carry sugars (down)
	B) Simple examples in Animals
		1) Hydra - amoeboid cells distribute oxygen
		2) Flatworms and unicellular organisms
			a) flat or simple shape - direct contact with
				the external medium
	C) Complex Systems
		1) Open Circulatory Systems (Arthropods and Mollusks)
			a) simple pump, short vessels opening into 
				sinuses, tissues are bathed in fluids 
				pumped over tissues
		2) Closed Circulatory Systems
			a) pump, vessels, blood contained entirely within 
				vessel system
	D) Human as an example of Closed System
		1) Vessels
			a) arteries, arterioles carry blood away from heart
			b) veins, venules carry blood back to heart
			c) capillaries - site of exchange between blood 
				and tissues,interface with cells of the 
				body, between venules 
				and arterioles
		2) Heart - human example
			a) atria, collect blood, RA from body, LA from lungs
			b) ventricles, pump blood out of heart, RV to lungs, 
				LV to body
			c) right side of heart is the pulmonary circuit, 
				left side is systemic circuit
			d) valves, control backflow, bicuspid on left 
				side, tricuspid on right side of heart, 
				semilunar valves located
				between ventricles and arteries
					1) Summary of blood flow within the heart
					2) Summary of out of heart
			f) blood pressure 
			g) electrical control
		3) Evolution of the heart
			a) fish - simple tube (atrium and ventricle)
			b) amphibians - 2 A, 1 V
			c) Reptiles - 2 A, 1 V, with septum
			d) Mammals and birds - 2 A, 2 V
		4) Blood - composition of blood
			a) Development - where do blood cells come from
			b) Plasma - fluid component
			c) Erythrocytes=RBC's, hemoglobin=protein that 
				carries oxygen (iron is attachment site)
			d) Leukocytes=WBC's, defenders of the body
			e) platelets - cell fragments, used in clotting
	D) Blood clot
		1) platelets migrate to damaged area, form spiky 
			processes, become sticky
		2) coagulation - transformation of liquid to gel, series 
			of complex chemical reactions

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