Lecture Notes for General Biology BI 101 - Introductory Materials

I Details of the Course
	A) Policies, Grading, etc...

II Biology Defined
	A) Biology = study of life
		1) living organisms
		2) biological processes
	B) Hierarchy in Biology
										Subatomic particles
	C) Criteria for distinguishing living organisms
		1) growth and development
		2) metabolism
		3) homeostasis
		4) movement
		5) detect and react to stimuli
		6) reproduction
		7) composed of cells
		8) contain DNA
		9) capable of adaptation and evolution

III History of Biology (link to timeline of history of science)
	A) Humans have an innate fascination with plants and animals
		1) Examples - Embedded in Culture (Religion, Politics, etc...)
Period 1 - Pre-history - 1650
	B) Primitive Civilizations
		1) Practical knowledge of plants and animals (food, dangersous predators, poisonous organisms
			making tools, medicines, implements - see Ethnobotany tables for examples of Hawaiian plants)
		2) Dangerous predators
		3) Incorporated into religion and mysticism
				Hawaiian Examples
					Story of Kalo and origins of humans - son of Deities Wakea and Ho'ohokukalani, dies 
						and from his grave grows the taro plant or KALO for the making of poi, 
						his younger brother, Haloa, is the descendant of the human race, plant is used for food 
						and medicine
					Ohi'a lehua (red, yellow, plant) - colonizing species on lava flows, has sacred meanings,
						this is a story about two lovers, Ohia (m) and Lehua (f) and Pele (goddess of the volcano),
						Pele tries to steal Ohia from Lehua but he refuses so Pele turns him into an ugly tree,
						Lehua tries to convince the other gods to turn Ohia back into a man but they can't,
						instead, they turn Lehua into a beautiful flower and put her on the Ohia tree, 
						according to this legend, when someone picks these flowers off the tree it begins to
						rain which symbolize tears, used for medicine and to build bowls, spears, mallets, canoes, 
						houses, flowers for the ornamental leis
		4) Cave art - unknown function but related to above
		5) Petroglyphs from Puna District, Pu'uloa at Volcanoes National Park
			Hawaiian Petroglyphs at Pu'uloa (hill of long life) - circles - depository for piko or umbilical cord 
				umbilical cord was deposited in the craving in the pahoehoe lava and covered with a stone,
				gives the child a chance for a long life
		6) Southwest Indians (Arizona)
				Honanki Indians - cave art: 
					site location
					deer and human
					emergence and lizard
		7) Domestication - plants and animals
			10,000 bc - wolves
			9,000 bc - sheep in the Middle east
			7,000 bc - wheat in Mesopotamia
			4,000 bc - horses in the Eurasian steppes
	C) Greek Civilization (450-200 BC)
		1) Contributions: split biology from the physical sciences,
			documentation of natural history and classification
		2) Hippocrates (400-300 BC)
			Biomedical applications and interests
			Hippocratic Oath: A Contemporary Version
		3) Aristotle (300's BC)
			Scala Naturae, Classification of Animals
		4) Theophrastos (300's BC)
			desciption of plant parts, primitive classification of Plants
	D) Romans and Arabs
		1) Very little, some investigations into Anatomy and 
			medicinal applications of plants
		2) Galen - Greek doctor born in Turkey, served Romans - first doctor to take a human pulse
	E) Middle Ages (450 - 1500's)
		1) Natural Theology - development from Thomas Aquinas 
			order and apparent purpose in nature imply creation 
		3) Zeitgeist: Absolute truths - to question accepted doctrine 
			was heresy (Galileo example - earth revolves
			around the sun, earth is not center of universe)
		4) The use of soap for cleansing
			liquid/soft soaps by the Gauls (9th century) - boiling animal fats with natural soda
			hard soap came from Arabs (12th century)
		5) The use of hops in brewing beer (10th century)
	F) Renaissance (14th-16th centuries)
		1) Zeitgeist - age of exploration, academics began to question
			absolute truths, search for new explanations, pursuit of intellectual freedom
		2) Back to nature Movement (similar to today's movement)
Period 2 - 1651 - 1865 
		3) 1665 - Cell Biology and the Invention of the microscope, 
			Hooke worked on a compound microscope and observed plant cells in cork
			followed by Van Leeuwenhoek (described animalcules which were first 
			descriptions of bacteria
		4) 1668 - Redi performs experiment which shows there is
			no spontaneous generation
		5) Development of formal programs in Anatomy in Italian
			Universities, formal research in Anatomy
		6) mid - 1700's - Karl Linne and formal system of classification of
			plants animals, first binomial system for species names
	G) French Contribution
		1) Buffon (1700's) - studied comparative anatomy, behavior,
			distribution of mammals, age of the earth is greater than 60,000 years
		2) Cuvier (1800's) - formalized field of comparative anatomy
			(Founding father of Comparative Anatomy), also a 
			great paleontologist (studied fossils and timetables for
			organisms, succession of fossils occurs in chronological order)
	H) German Contribution
		1) Helmholtz and Ludwig (1800's) - developed the field of physiology,  
			first chemical experimentation in physiology, 
			Helmholtz - measures velocity of a nerve impulse in a frog's leg, invents the
				opthalamoscope for looking into the eye, studied sound transmission in the ear
			Ludwig  studied filtration of chemicals by the kidney
	I) English Contribution
		1) William Paley - beginning of the end of Natural Theology (documentation 
			 of life history information for many organisms)
			 A goal of Natural Theology - document adaptations of
			organisms provided by the Supreme creator
		2) Darwin and Wallace theory of Evolution - end of the marriage between
			science and theology
			a) Darwin - famous 5 year trip on the HMS Beagle
				Galapagos Tortoise
				Galapagos Mockingbirds - subspecies and closely related species
				Galapagos Finches
			b) Wallace - studied Malaysian fauna - Wallacea and Wallace's Line
		3) Discovery and elaboration of theory of evolution
			ties all fields of biology together
Period 3 - 1866 - 1925
	J) Lost contribution: Mendel
		1) Founding father of the field of Genetics, original
			work rediscovered in the early 1900's, nearly
			50 years after the original research
Period 4 - 1926 - 1960 and Period 5 - 1961 - 2003
	K) Modern Biology in the 20th Century
		1) Driven by technology 
		2) Biology formally composed of many different
			a) Organismal Biology (Evolution, Diversity,
				Ecology, Conservation, Animal Behavior, 
				Comparative Vertebrate and Invertebrate 
				Anatomy, Museology)
			b) Cellular Biology (Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular,
				Development, Anatomy and Physiology
				of the different systems of the body)
III Science and Research
	A) Scientists use the scientific method
		1) obtain background information (literature search and review)
		2) ask biological questions
		3) develop testable hypotheses
				a) make predictions/deductions for each hypothesis
		4) design experiment to test hypotheses
		5) collect data
		6) analyze data
		7) interpret results		
		8) answer biological question
		9) present results 
				a) oral presentation at scientific meeting
				b) written presentation in scientific journal
	B) Scientists are skeptical - try the Carl Sagan BALONEY DETECTION KIT

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