I Introduction to the Nervous System A) Practical Applications - Drugs and Society 1) Function of Drugs in Different Societies a) Medicinal - all societies b) Incorporate into religious ceremonies 1) North American Indians of the SW U. S. - peyote buttons taken by medicine men 2) Catholicism - wine symbolizes blood of Christ c) Drugs and Payment 1) Moslems - hashish reward for military accomplishments 2) South American Indians - cocaine for slave workers B) Drugs 1) Action of drugs a) mimic action of neurotransmitters b) increase production of neurotransmitters c) block action of neurotransmitters C) Biological Classification of Drugs - based on the effects of the drugs on individual behavior 1) Stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine) 2) Depressants (barbiturates, alcohol, anesthetics, Quaaludes, opiates) 3) Psychedelics/Hallucinogens (LSD, Mescaline) 4) Antipsychotics (Lithium) 5) Analgesics - opiates 6) Summary Table - drugs, behavioral effects, withdrawal symptoms 7) Information on common drugs of abuse from National Inst. on Drug Abuse (NIDA) D) Drug Treatment - Alcohol model (use drugs to treat drugs) 1) Naltrexone - blocks action of alcohol 2) Disulfiram - causes extreme nausea, vomiting 3) Alcoholics Anonymous - AA Information 4) Substance Abuse and mental health publications (SAMSHA) E) Sleep and Arousal 1) Alternate around 24 hr. period = circadian rhythm 2) Due to activities of the RAS (Reticular Activating System) 3) Overview of sleep F) 5 different stages of Sleep 1) 1 (light sleep, meditation) - 2 - 3 - 4 (bed wetting, sleepwalking), all components of N-REM sleep 2) REM Sleep = stage 5 of sleep (dream sleep) 3) Sleep Cycle (50-90 minutes) 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 / 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 / 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 (amount of time spent in stage 5 increases throughout the night) G) Sleep Disorders General Web links Stanford University National Sleep Foundation 1) Narcolepsy - uncontrolled sleeping during the day Causes - not well known, associated with a lack of hypocretin (stimulates arousal and regulates sleep) and Hert cells (special neurons that secrete hypocretin) 2) Sleep Apnea - disorder of the respiratory system which results in patient constantly waking up during the night, but they don't know it, eventually lack of sleep catches up with them at inopportune times during the day 3) Insomnia - can't get to sleep, physiological and psychological bases, most likely an interaction of the two H) Other Phobias, Syndromes and Disorder II Nervous Systems A) Fundamental Unit = typical neuron, other nerve cell types 1) Characteristics a) dendrites b) cell body c) axon d) terminal ending with bouton 2) Property of Excitability a) ability to be stimulated b) due to electrochemical gradient (+ on the outside, - on the inside), resting potential c) Na+/K+ pump (Na+ is pumped out, K+ is pumped in but in different amounts) 3) Action potential - transmission of an impulse/signal down neuron due to depolarization (reversal in polarity, outside becomes - compared to + inside cell), followed by repolarization propagation of action potentia 4) Schwann Cells, cause a localized depolarization, increases speed at which impulse travels down axon forms myelin sheath 5) Communication between neurons - occurs at the synapse a) EPSP stimulates second neuron to fire b) IPSP inhibits second neuron from firing c) role of neurotransmitters vesicles contain neurotransmitters, release contents into the synaptic cleft B) Nerves- bundles of neurons packed together in connective and fatty tissues C) Simple Nervous Systems 1) Hydra - simple nerve net 2) Insects and Arthropods - nerve net and ganglia 3) Vertebrates - central processing unit (brain) plus nerve network 4) Trend - increasing complexity from simple distribution of nerves to a network controlled by one CPU in the head region (cephalization) Comparative overview of vertebrate brains D) Overview of the Human Nervous system 1) Central Nervous System = brain and the spinal cord 2) Brain - Parts Hindbrain = medulla and cerebellum Midbrain = relay center Forebrain = thalamus and hypothalamus 3) Brain evolution simple (fish, amphibians) - complex (humans, whales, dolphins) small forebrain - large forebrain (cerebral cortex, connected by corpus callosum) 4) Systems in the brain RAS - controls sleep and arousal rhythms Limbic - associated with emotion and sexual behavior 5) Spinal cord ascending - carry sensory information to brain descending - carry motor messages from the brain example of nerve innervation 6) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) a) Somatic - control over skeletal muscle b) Autonomic - control organs of body 1) Sympathetic - fight/flight reaction ganglia right outside spinal cord, NT = epinephrine 2) Parasympathetic - resting/digesting ganglia right outside target organ, NT = Ach (acetylcholine) c) Sensory system - process information from the environment 1) Vision and the eye connecting the eye to the brain farsightedness nearsightedness 2) Audition and the ear a) tympanum = ear drum, listens to sound 3) Olfaction = taste and smell a) taste buds in tongue
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