Nobel Prize Winners

General Biology BI 101

Nobel Foundation

Year Area Winners Discovery
2014 Physiology and or Medicine John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I. Moser Cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
  Physics Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura For the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources
  Chemistry Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner For the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
2013 Physiology and or Medicine James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof Discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
  Physics François Englert and Peter W. Higgs For the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider
  Chemistry Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel For the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
2012 Physiology and or Medicine Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka Discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent
  Physics Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland For ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems
  Chemistry Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka For studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
2011 Physiology and or Medicine Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
  Physics Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"
  Chemistry Dan Shechtman "for the discovery of quasicrystals"
2010 Physiology and or Medicine Robert G. Edwards "development of the in vitro fertilization procedure, which has so far led to the birth of around 4 million people."
  Physics Andre Geim Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"
  Chemistry Richard F. Heck Ei-ichi Negishi Akira Suzuki "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis", technique used to make drugs that kill cancer cells, antibiotics and make parts for sophisicated electronics (e.g., diodes for thin monitors, etc.)
2009 Physiology and or Medicine Elizabeth H. Blackburn Carol W. Greider Jack W. Szostak "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".
  Physics Charles K. Kao Willard S. Boyle George E. Smith "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication",the other half jointly to Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"
  Chemistry Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Thomas A. Steitz Ada E. Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".
2008 Physiology and or Medicine Harald zur Hausen, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer",the other half jointly to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".
  Physics Yoichiro Nambu Makoto Kobayashi Toshihide Maskawa "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics",the other half jointly to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature".
  Chemistry Osamu Shimomura Martin Chalfie Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".
2007 Physiology and or Medicine Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, Oliver Smithies "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".
  Physics Albert Fert Peter Grünberg "for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
  Chemistry Gerhard Ertl "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces".
2006 Physiology and or Medicine Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
  Physics John C. Mather, George F. Smoot "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
  Chemistry Roger D. Kornberg "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"
2005 Physiology and or Medicine Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren Discovered Helicobacter pylori bacteria as the source of ulcers
  Physics Roy J. Glauber "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
John L. Hall, Theodor W. Hänsch "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
  Chemistry Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
2004 Physiology and or Medicine Axel, Buck genetics of the sense of smell
  Physics Gross, Politzer quarks and strong force that holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
  Chemistry Ciechanover, Hershko, Rose cellular destruction of proteins