Lecture Notes for General Biology BI 101 - Respiratory Systems



I Respiratory System (An important public service message about smoking)

	A) Smoking - THE FACTS
		1) approximately 87% cases of lung cancer are smokers
		2) Smokers are more susceptible to cancer
			a) pancreas, bladder, mouth, larynx, esophagus
			   leukemia, cervix, kidney, stomach
		3) Smokers are 3.5 times more likely to suffer from arterial disease
		4) Smokers are 20 times more likely to suffer from
				emphysema - destruction of the alveoli, hyperinflation of the sac and 
					can't receive oxygen
				bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi, excessive mucus production
		5) Over 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke, nicotine is addictive
		6) Second hand smoke
			a) children of smokers have twice as many respiratory infections
			b) fetus - low birthweight and higher miscarriage rate among pregnant 
				women
			c) approximately 20% increase risk of lung cancer deaths due to secondhand 
				smoke
		7) Overview from the American Cancer Society
		8) PDF files with more information
			Tobacco-free Kids Campaign - facts about smoking (pdf)
			Tobacco-free Kids Campaign - secondhand smoke (pdf) 
			The smoke around you - secondhand smoke (pdf)
	B) Respiratory Systems in plants and animals
		1) Function - gas exchange (primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide)
	C) Plants
		1) stomata on the underside of leaf, guard cells around stoma
	D) Animals - range from simple to complex
		1) Aquatic invertebrates: body surface is respiratory surface, 
			gas exchange by diffusion unicellular organisms, 
			flatworms, roundworms, etc...
		2) Acquatic vertebrates - fish
			gills = respiratory surface, achieved by countercurrent 
				exchange with water flowing against direction of 
				blood flow
		3) Terrestrial Invertebrates
			a) Insects - spiracles and tracheae
		4) Terrestrial Vertebrates
			a) birds
				lungs and air sacs
			b) Amphibians - breathing through skin and lungs
			c) Mammals - human example
				mouth and nasal passages - pharynx - trachea 
				and larynx - two bronchi - bronchioles into 
				lungs - alveolar sacs with vascular supply =
				site of gas exchange
				Additions from muscular system - diaphragm
				and intercostal muscles in rib cage
			c) Breathing = Inhalation and Exhalation
				Inhalation - diaphragm contracts and rib cage expands
				Exhalation - diaphragm relaxes and rib cage returns to 
					resting position, X-ray of inhalation, exhalation
			d) Something stuck in your throat - try the Heimlich Manuever 


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