I Respiratory System (An important public service message about smoking) A) Smoking - THE FACTS 1) approximately 87% cases of lung cancer are smokers 2) Smokers are more susceptible to cancer a) pancreas, bladder, mouth, larynx, esophagus leukemia, cervix, kidney, stomach 3) Smokers are 3.5 times more likely to suffer from arterial disease 4) Smokers are 20 times more likely to suffer from emphysema - destruction of the alveoli, hyperinflation of the sac and can't receive oxygen bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi, excessive mucus production 5) Over 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke, nicotine is addictive 6) Second hand smoke a) children of smokers have twice as many respiratory infections b) fetus - low birthweight and higher miscarriage rate among pregnant women c) approximately 20% increase risk of lung cancer deaths due to secondhand smoke 7) Overview from the American Cancer Society 8) PDF files with more information Tobacco-free Kids Campaign - facts about smoking (pdf) Tobacco-free Kids Campaign - secondhand smoke (pdf) The smoke around you - secondhand smoke (pdf) B) Respiratory Systems in plants and animals 1) Function - gas exchange (primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide) C) Plants 1) stomata on the underside of leaf, guard cells around stoma D) Animals - range from simple to complex 1) Aquatic invertebrates: body surface is respiratory surface, gas exchange by diffusion unicellular organisms, flatworms, roundworms, etc... 2) Acquatic vertebrates - fish gills = respiratory surface, achieved by countercurrent exchange with water flowing against direction of blood flow 3) Terrestrial Invertebrates a) Insects - spiracles and tracheae 4) Terrestrial Vertebrates a) birds lungs and air sacs b) Amphibians - breathing through skin and lungs c) Mammals - human example mouth and nasal passages - pharynx - trachea and larynx - two bronchi - bronchioles into lungs - alveolar sacs with vascular supply = site of gas exchange Additions from muscular system - diaphragm and intercostal muscles in rib cage c) Breathing = Inhalation and Exhalation Inhalation - diaphragm contracts and rib cage expands Exhalation - diaphragm relaxes and rib cage returns to resting position, X-ray of inhalation, exhalation d) Something stuck in your throat - try the Heimlich Manuever
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Copyright © 2001 Jay Pitocchelli. All rights reserved. The contents of this page are the intellectual property of Dr. Jay Pitocchelli for distribution to students enrolled in General Biology BI 01 at Saint Anselm College. These pages may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or published in any electronic or machine-readable form in whole or in part without prior written approval of Jay Pitocchelli. Students enrolled in General Biology BI 01 at Saint Anselm College have permission to print this material for their lecture notes. The images linked to this web page are the sole property of Addison Wesley/ Benjamin Cummings Publishers.