Example of Onetailed One Sample Student's t Test
Biostatistics BI 45, Saint Anselm College
Step 1) State the biological question. Does it take longer than 45 seconds for a drug in pill form to dissolve in the gastric juices of the stomach?
Step 2) Translate the biological question into statistical hypotheses.
Step 3) State the alpha level: p<0.05 is considered significant
Step 4) State the statistical test.
Because we are working with a hypothetical population mean and a sample mean and we want to know about the direction of the difference between the means, we use the onetailed One Sample t test.
Step 5) State the assumptions of the test.
The subjects in the sample must be randomly selected from a population. The sample data must come from a normally distributed population of observations for the variable under study.
Step 6) Calculate the observed t statistics from your data.

Time
(sec) 
d 
d2 
ss 
var 
sd 
se 
t 

42.7 
2.5125 
6.31265625 
18.82875 
2.68982143 
1.64006751 
0.57985143 
0.36647319 

43.4 
1.8125 
3.28515625 






44.6 
0.6125 
0.37515625 






45.1 
0.1125 
0.01265625 






45.6 
0.3875 
0.15015625 






45.9 
0.6875 
0.47265625 






46.8 
1.5875 
2.52015625 






47.6 
2.3875 
5.70015625 














Sum 
361.7 







Mean 
45.2125 







n 
8 







df 
7 







Hypoth.
Mean 
45 







Step 7) Find the df and critical value of t from the table of critical values.
Step 8) Compare the critical and observed t values and reject or do not reject the null hypothesis.
Find the actual P value
t_{obs}=0.36<
t_{.25(1)7}=0
P>0.25
Step 9) Interpret the results of the analysis as it relates to the biological question raised in 1). The time it took for the pill to dissolve in gastric juices was not significantly longer than 45 seconds (t=0.36, df=7, onetailed, p>0.25).
Blackboard at Saint Anselm College
Trademark and Disclaimers
Copyright © 2001 Jay Pitocchelli. All rights reserved. The contents of this page are the intellectual property of Dr. Jay Pitocchelli for distribution to students enrolled in Biostatistics BI 45 at Saint Anselm College. These pages may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or published in any electronic or machinereadable form in whole or in part without prior written approval of Jay Pitocchelli. Students enrolled in Biostatistics BI 45 at Saint Anselm College have permission to print this material for their lecture notes. All formulae and critical values from: Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis. (4th ed.). New Jersey, Prentice Hall.