The Psychology Handbook

Principal Contents
The Aims and Values of the Department of Psychology
Catalogue & Courses
Channels of communication between faculty and students
The advisement Process
Registration for courses
Requirements for a major in psychology
Independent Study
Comprehensive examination
Senior Thesis
Planning your career
Career possibilities
Psych majors- Class of  2000 say farewell & offer advice
A guide to psychology department faculty
Representative faculty publications
Appendix A: Internship Policy Statement
Appendix B: Stylistic Guideline for Publications and Senior Theses
Appendix C: Research with Human Subjects

The curriculum developed by the Department of Psychology provides a wide spectrum of the many facets of Psychology; a science which seeks to understand the behavior and mental activity of human beings and animals.
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The courses offered by the Department of Psychology have been developed to satisfy the needs of those students who have interests in the scientific study of behavior as well as those who desire to major in this field. The courses in psychology reflect the basic and recent trends in clinical, experimental, developmental life span, social, and humanistic psychology giving students a broad rather than compartmentalized perspective of psychology as a science. Those courses in clinical psychology reflect the various functions of therapy, personality assessment and the understanding of personality theory. Experimental psychology places emphasis on the research tradition with laboratory exercises. Developmental life span offer courses in developmental psychology from birth to old age. Recent developments in social psychology and humanistic psychology reflect interest in the behavior of individuals in social situations and concern for normal individuals and their potential for growth. In addition to the above, opportunities are provided for independent study and internship experiences.

 Each psychology major must complete at least 36 semester hours in psychology. This total includes six required psychology courses (18 semester hours) and six elective psychology courses (18 semester hours). This program insures that each psychology major will have a common grounding in the scientific aspects of psychology through the required courses while addressing the more specialized and/or applied aspects of psychology by means of elective courses. Thus, students who major in psychology are given basic preparation for graduate study should they wish to pursue a graduate program. Psychology majors are also given pre-professional training for careers in counseling, teaching, guidance, personnel selection and evaluation as well as administrative and human service careers, depending on which combination of elective courses they choose.

 In addition to addressing career objectives, completing a major in psychology, along with a college-wide Humanities program, immersed in an atmosphere of Benedictine ideals and values, should enable the student to better understand

 his or her own behavior and mind as well as the thinking and behavior of others. This greater understanding and caring for others should help the student face personal and societal problems more resourcefully.
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There are several channels of communication available to faculty members and students within our department:

Bulletin Board:

Several large bulletin boards are located in the corridor in the Psychology suite on the top floor of the Goulet Science Center. These bulletin boards are to convey all announcements and items of interest to psychology majors and students interested in the program of studies offered by the Psychology Department. This is a centrally located, easily accessible channel of communication from the Psychology Department and related organizations such as Psi Chi and the Psychology Club. Please check the bulletin boards often for information regarding course registration, departmental announcements, class cancellations, meetings, lectures, conferences, conventions, graduate school information, etc.
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Handbook for Psychology Majors:

The tenth edition of this handbook will be made available to all psychology majors during the fall semester, 2000. It will be revised as needed.

This handbook will attempt to provide all students interested in the Psychology program with up to date, accurate information regarding the program. The handbook will include a comprehensive overview and essential details of the department's curricula, policies and procedures, academic requirements as well as career planning information.

Your verbal or written comments, directed to the Department Chair, Prof. Elizabeth Ossoff, regarding sections that need to be added or revised would be much appreciated.
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Psychology Club:

While all students, campus-wide, are welcome to join the Psychology Club, psychology majors automatically become members of the Club when they declare psychology as their major.

The Psychology Club provides students with the means to plan and carry out social gatherings and events promoting the science and profession of psychology. For example, the Club has sponsored faculty and guest speakers, social gatherings at faculty homes, information and consciousness raising sessions on campus, and an annual Psychology Department get together at the end of the academic year.

Additionally, the Club serves as a two-way information/ communication link between faculty and students. Psychology majors can use the Club as a participatory mechanism to discuss how they feel and think about new faculty initiatives or current departmental policies, practices and programs. Through this means, students can indicate their endorsement, cooperation and support, or they an make suggestions for improving the functioning and diversity of the department.

The officers of the Psychology Club for 2000-2001 are:
                President:    Matthew Lessard
                Vice Pres.:  Adam Volungis
                Secretary:   Lisa Hussey
                Treasurer:   John Gianitsis
                Moderators: Prof. Joseph Troisi and Prof. Scott Krauchunas
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Psi Chi:

 Psi Chi is the national honor society in psychology. The purpose of this organization is to encourage, stimulate and maintain excellence in scholarship of its members in all fields, particularly in psychology; and to advance the science of psychology.
Saint Anselm College was granted chapter membership in Psi Chi during the spring semester, 1990.

Membership: Minimum academic qualifications for active undergraduate student membership are as follows:
Completion of 8 semester hours of psychology, or 6 semester hours and current registration for at least 2 more semester hours of psychology in addition, or equivalent credits in psychology.
Registration for major standing in psychology, or for a program psychological in nature which is equivalent to such standings.
A ranking not lower than the highest 35% of their (sophomore, junior, or senior) class in general scholarship and a "B" average or better in psychology courses.  High standards of personal behavior.
Two-thirds affirmative vote of those present at a regular meeting of the chapter.

During the nine year period since its inception our Psi Chi chapter, among its other activities, has served as the College (SAC) academic liaison with the broader scientific psychology community. Psi Chi and its faculty moderators were successful in bringing Dr. Edith Kaplan, an internationally renowned neuropsychologist to campus in March of 1996. Her presentation was on the history of the emerging field of neuropsychology. In 1992, the New Hampshire Psychological Association held it's annual meeting on our campus with Professor Neal Miller of Yale University, founder of the biofeedback treatment approach and former president of the American Psychological Association. This was the first time that NHPA met on our campus.

 Psi Chi was also instrumental in having the New England Psychological Association annual meeting held at Saint Anselm in 1993. Professor Wilbert J. McKeachie of the University of Michigan, former president of the American Psychological Association and Director of the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching delivered the address. Both students and faculty will be attending NEPA this fall.

 Psi Chi members and their faculty moderators have also helped to stimulate a growing interest and productivity in research among psychology majors. In March of 2000 several students presented their research projects at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association in Baltimore, Maryland.  Already plans are being made to attend the 2001 EPA meeting in Washington, DC.

 Psi Chi officers for 2000-2001 are as follows:
                President:           Marianna Eddy
               Vice President:    Shannon Carter
                Treasurer:           Matthew Lombard
                Secretary:           Cindy Marcotte
                Moderators: Prof. Paul Finn and Prof. Elizabeth Ossoff
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The Advisement Process

The advisement process begins with each psychology major selecting a departmental faculty advisor. A student-advisor list will be posted each semester on the bulletin board in the Psychology Department Main Office, Room 3400, 3rd floor Goulet Science Center. Choose any member of the faculty that you feel comfortable with and who has course, program and career information relevant to your interests. Feel free at any time during your college experience to change advisors in accord with your changing needs and perspectives. In order to provide continuity for each student across advisors and as source material for letters of recommendation, a folder will be kept for each student for use by the faculty.

Let your interests, aptitudes, career objectives and information guide your selection of courses. If you are not clear on your objectives, take the initiative and discuss these matters with your advisor, preferably well before departmental, pre-registration periods (November 6-10, 2000 and March 13-19, 2001).

Faculty members can also be of assistance following your graduation by providing references and counsel regarding graduate schools, fields of employment, and further career development possibilities. Faculty members have also sponsored students entering a new field of endeavor.

Ultimately, of course, all these program, career and life decisions are your responsibility. No one should make them for you. While the faculty is available and eager to be engaged in serious dialogue in these matters, it is up to you to take responsibility and initiate requests for information and discussion, beyond pro-forma registration for courses.
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Registration for Courses:

Registration for continuing students is completed each semester in a two part sequence.

During Part One (Pre-Registration....) students discuss course selection each semester with their self-selected advisor within the department of their major subject.  During the 2000 fall semester, Pre-Registration for Spring of 2001 within the Department will take place, Monday-Friday, November 6-10, 2000.  During or the 2001 spring semester, Pre-Registration within Departments will take place Tuesday-Monday, March 13-19, 2001.

Pre-registration within the Psychology Department, by class year, will be scheduled by posting sign-up sheets on the Bulletin Board in the Psychology Department, 3rd floor, Goulet.

Part One of the registration process is formalized by the advisor's signature on the Student Schedule Form. The registration form is then forwarded by the Department to the Registrar's Office.

During Part Two, students complete the registration process in the Registrar's office. During the 2000 fall semester, registration in the Registrar's office will take place Tuesday-Thursday, November 28-December 7, 2000. During the 2001 spring semester, registration in the Registrar's office will take place Monday-Monday, April 2-9, 2001.

The Registrar's office notifies students of their date and appointment time to come in to complete the registration process (Part Two). Students are not to cut classes in order to complete Part Two of the registration process. Instead, notify the Registrar's office of the conflict and request a new time during the same appointment day. Registration is not finalized until a student has completed both parts of this process.
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Student/Faculty Consultations:

Each faculty member has office hours. If these hours are not convenient for you, other hours can usually be arranged, by mutual agreement.

Feel free at all times to discuss program-related matters with any member of the faculty that you wish. In most cases, if you are having problems with a particular course, discuss your problem with the professor who teaches that course.

For a quality educational experience, look into the possibility of doing a student-faculty research project. Consult with more than one faculty member in this regard, if you wish. Refer to faculty biographical sketches for indications of faculty research interests.

Graduate school selection committees and/or future employers are often favorably impressed with well conducted faculty-student or individual student research reports.

Informal Occasions:

From time to time, students and faculty within the Department get together for a mid-winter weekend gathering - to go cross-country skiing, or end-of- academic year picnic, or the beginning-of-year get acquainted mixer. Besides being enjoyable, these occasions serve to bring students and faculty closer together for informal exchange of ideas, views or whatever.
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A student must complete a minimum of 36 semester hours of course work in psychology with an average of 2.0 or higher in these courses and pass a comprehensive psychology examination in order to qualify for a major in psychology.

All Psychology majors are required to take the following six core courses: General Psychology (PY 09 and PY 10), Behavioral Statistics (PY 15), Experimental Psychology (PY 11 and PY 12), and Seminar in Psychology (PY 24).

In addition, each psychology major must select six other (elective) Psychology courses: three from Group A and three from Group B.

Six Required Courses

PY 09 General Psychology I - usually taken during freshman year
PY 10 General Psychology II - same as above
PY 15 Behavioral Statistics (one semester) - usually taken 1st semester, sophomore year
PY 11 Experimental Psychology I - second semester junior year
PY 12 Experimental Psychology II - first semester senior year
PY 24 Seminar in Psychology - second semester senior year

 Six Elective Courses

Group A. Select three of the following broad, survey courses.

PY 13 Cognitive Psychology
PY 14 Physiological Psychology
PY 16 Psychology of Personality
PY 17 Abnormal Psychology
PY 25 History of Psychology
PY 26 Psychology of Learning
PY 42 Social Psychology

Group B. Select three of the following narrow focus, derivative courses.

PY 18 Methods of Clinical Psychology
PY 20 Organizational Psychology
PY 21 Humanistic Psychology
PY 23 Psychometrics
PY 28 Child Psychology
PY 29 Adolescent Psychology
PY 30 Psychology of Adulthood and Aging
PY 31 Psychology of Addiction and Dependency
PY 32 Health Psychology
PY 33 Childhood Psychopathology
PY 34 Psychology of Gender
PY 35 Psychology and the Law
PY 41 Political Psychology
PY 43 Sensation and Perception
PY 80, PY 81 Internship

 Detailed Description of the six core courses

General Psychology (Py 09 and PY 10) is a two semester course which introduces the student to a scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of organisms.

Behavioral Statistics (PY 15) This introductory statistics course begins with a review of basic mathematics. Descriptive and inferential statistics are then presented. Descriptive statistics includes single subject methods. Inferential statistics covers both parametric and non-parametric methods.
This course will also introduce students to laboratory resources and use of computers in support of design, analysis and presentation of results.
Upon completion of this course students will have sufficient statistical and computer competence to undertake Experimental Psychology I and II.

General Psychology (PY 09 and PY 10) is a prerequisite for Behavioral Statistics (PY 15).

Experimental Psychology I (PY 11) is usually taken during the spring semester of the Junior year.
This course will give the student an overview and working knowledge of research methods used in psychology. More specifically, Experimental Psychology I will provide the basic skills necessary to successfully design, execute, analyze, and write (using APA publication format) experimental and quasi-experimental research. This course is a prerequisite for Experimental Psychology II during which course the Senior Thesis is completed.
Experimental Psychology I consists of lectures, discussion, laboratory demonstrations, statistical exercises, and written reports based on research activities in the laboratory.
Before the end of the semester (by a non-negotiable deadline date) each student is required to submit a proposal of a feasible experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental design which the student intends to use as his or her Senior Thesis. This proposal will include a literature review, hypotheses, proposed methodology and data analysis plan, as well as anticipated results, discussion and summary.
This proposed Senior Thesis may be an experimental study involving either animals or humans in which the independent variable is manipulated in a controlled manner. The student may also propose to conduct a quasi-experimental study, or a research study which is not experimental (i.e., is correlational, survey, questionnaire, observational, or case study) in nature. A very thoughtful, comprehensive, evaluative, technical, or theoretical paper reviewing an emerging field or a highly controversial issue might be acceptable if it reflected a high level of scholarship, creative analysis, and original synthesis and integration of subject material. A typical term paper, however elaborate and lengthy, is not acceptable.

Experimental Psychology II (PY 12) is usually taken during the fall semester of the Senior year.
This course will review basic methods of psychological research as well as acquainting the student with more sophisticated data analysis techniques and ethical issues (see Appendix C - Research with Human Subjects) encountered while conducting psychological research.
Students will have ample opportunity to present their thesis proposals and pilot studies in class for discussion by their peers. Students will also have time available for office consultation with the instructor. Students will submit detailed major components of their senior thesis (i.e., thesis proposal, literature review and hypotheses, methods and data analysis plan, results, discussion and summary) to the instructor for nonevaluative feedback on designated dates throughout the semester.
The completed thesis must be typed according to the American Psychological Association format, as modified by the stylistic rules of the Psychology Department (see Appendix B titled, Stylistic Guidelines for Publications and Senior Thesis).
Each student is required to submit a completed senior thesis to the instructor by Thanksgiving break.

Seminar in Psychology (PY 24) is usually taken during the spring semester of the Senior year.
This seminar is where it all comes together in a truly capstone experience for each psychology major. First, all students will present and defend their theses before their peers. Next, each student, acting as a discussion-leader, will organize and lead a round table discussion session based on the broader aspects of their thesis topic. Prior to the round table session, after having read the background material prepared by the discussion leader, each student-member of the seminar will come to the session with four questions. Two of the questions will relate to the thesis topic to be discussed. The other two questions will be based on the content of previous courses in psychology which are relevant to the thesis topic. Finally, each student will prepare a standard APA poster based on their thesis. Posters will be exhibited collectively at a time and place to be announced. A number of posters will be submitted to state and regional psychological association meetings for presentation to the larger scientific community.
By the end of the semester, students will have been exposed to a wide variety of thesis topics each of which will have been discussed at progressively deeper levels of understanding. And by referring to relevant content material from previous psychology courses during the discussion of thesis topics, students in this seminar will be able to more completely integrate their undergraduate exposure to the subject matter of psychology.
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Independent Study

Independent Study is a 3 credit course which involves a supervised study relationship between a student and a Psychology Department faculty member. It may include a research project that the student is working on with a member of the faculty. Or, the student may wish to study some aspect of psychology which is not included in the departmental program, either not at all or not during that academic year. A student initiated proposal for an Independent Study project must have the prior knowledge and approval of the supervising faculty member and the Psychology Department Chairperson. It is expected that the student and faculty member will meet weekly. Performance will be evaluated in the usual manner at the end of the semester by the faculty member sup ervising the student's work.
This course offers a great opportunity to actively engage in a student-faculty research project while earning course credit in the process.

 Guidelines for Independent Study

  1. A student is eligible to apply for an Independent Study who has a grade point average of 3.0 in the discipline in which the Independent Study is to be taken.
  2. A student registers for an Independent Study through the department in which the research project is to be undertaken, following recommendation of the student's academic advisor.
  3. No credit will be given for an Independent Study which has not been filed with the Registrar by the second week of the semester by the Chairperson who is approving the Independent Study.
  4. An Independent Study project may be taken as a fifth or a sixth course.
  5. A Chairperson may request approval from the Dean for an Independent Study by a student without the minimum grade point average requirement, if other qualifications justify special consideration.
  6. A student applying for an Independent Study must attach a transcript to the registration form for the Chairperson to review. A registration form may be obtained from the Chairperson.

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Comprehensive Examination

All psychology majors are required to take a comprehensive exam. This exam is administered during the Spring semester of the senior year. The department has selected an exam (Major Field Achievement Test-MFAT) based on national norms developed by the Educational Testing Service of Princeton, N.J.
MFAT is described as follows in the MFAT Program Manual:

"The Major Field Achievement Tests are objective, end-of-program tests in 16 disciplines (including Psychology). Based on the Graduate Record Examination tests, they have been shortened to two hours each, made less difficult than the GRE tests, and revised to reflect undergraduate programs and to be appropriate for all seniors majoring in a field, not for just those planning graduate study."

Review Sessions

Each year the Psi Chi and the Psychology Club request specific faculty members in content areas (e.g., developmental, statistics, clinical, learning and motivation, physiological, social) to briefly review these areas in preparation for the comprehensive exam.

Test Content

"In addition to factual knowledge, the tests evaluate students' ability to analyze and solve problems, understand relationships, and interpret material. They contain questions that call for information as well as questions that require interpretation of graphs, diagrams, and charts based on material related to the field."

There are several ways to prepare for this exam. A poor way is to wait until the Christmas break of your senior year to begin your review. A much better time to begin your review is the summer before your senior year. Here are some suggestions:

  1. Carefully study a good, comprehensive general psychology textbook, e.g., books by such authors as Gleitman, Atkinson et al, Zimbardo, Benjamin, Smith and Sarason, etc.
  2. Review your course notes: be aware that certain courses are likely to be more relevant than others. Consider forming a small, balanced study group in order to cover all MFAT areas.
  3. Another good way is to review as above and then take the Graduate Record Exam: Psychology Advanced Test, in April or June of your junior year. The Department may consider a high score (above 50%) on the GRE as successful completion of the comprehensive examination. Some graduate departments request your GRE score to be included in their application for admission. Check this out.
Senior Thesis

The Psychology Department requires each major to present and defend a thesis during the Spring semester of their senior year. The various types of acceptable theses have been described under the description of Experimental Psychology I (PY 11) (see page 10).

In the past, our majors have found that graduate schools and prospective employers are often very favorably impressed by quality theses presented as work samples.
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Based on practically unanimous comments we received recently from our psychology majors several to many years after their SAC graduation, it was their advice to you - to start thinking about and planning your career as early as your freshman year, or as soon thereafter as possible. Many of them wrote, with regret, that they had put off such thinking and decisions much too long. They found they had to take whatever was expedient or available upon graduation; not always what they really wanted or had hoped for.

 It is so easy and indeed, in some ways, desirable, to become totally immersed in the college experience - with the here and now, going to classes, taking exams, meeting deadlines, getting good grades, making friends, socializing, working summers, worrying about finances, adjustment problems, finding yourself, etc., - so much so that the future and the outside world seems remote and far away. But your career is a very real and important part of your future. You need to give some thought, do some fact finding, make some decisions, regarding what it is that you want as a career, what you want to do with your life and then work toward that goal, beginning early on - a plan that will take several years to accomplish to your satisfaction.

 Beyond the six psychology courses required of all psychology majors, which other elective departmental courses you take will depend upon your interest and career aspirations. Before and during registration each semester, as needed, discuss career choices with members of the department, your friends, family, with whomever you think might have information and opinions which might be useful to you. Then think carefully and make decisions.

 In general, there are at least three career foci within the departmental program:

  1. a basic scientific major in preparation for application to graduate school.
  2. a clinical/applied focus in preparation for entry-level positions in psychology e.g., mental health centers and/or substance abuse programs or in fields related to psychology such as Social Work, personnel and guidance work, business and administration.
  3. a broad selection of psychology courses in the tradition of a humanistic, liberal arts college experience for careers in religion, law, government, literature, etc.
More specifically, if you are interested in one of the following areas, you might consider taking the courses listed below. These are merely suggestive guidelines. See your departmental advisor for further information and discussion.

 Psychology at the graduate school level:

It is important first to decide what major area or field of psychology (clinical/counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, physiological, industrial/organizational, etc.) you plan to address and then select relevant courses and experiences from our program. In general, you should take more than three electives from Group A - the "broad survey" courses. You should also be making your application to graduate school as strong as possible by accumulating research and extra effort experiences. Consult a member of our department who has specialized in the area you are interested in when deciding which elective courses to take.

 There are a number of courses offered by other departments that cover material highly relevant to psychology and graduate study. It is recommended that you discuss this matter with your departmental advisor.

 Mental Health: Select at least six electives from the following, (three or more from each group), depending on your specific field of interest.

Group A           Cognitive Psychology (PY 13)
                         Physiological Psychology (PY 14)
                         Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
                         Abnormal Psychology (PY 17)

 Group B       Methods of Clinical Psychology (PY 18)
                     Psychometrics (PY 23)
                     Psychology of Addiction (PY 31)
                     Health Psychology (PY 32)
                     Childhood Psychopathology (PY 33)
                     Developmental Psychology (PY 28, 29 or 30)
                     Internship (PY 80, 81)

With regard to internship, if you are interested in a hands-on, practical experience that will enhance your employment possibilities in mental health organizations and/or will strengthen your application to a graduate school clinical psychology program, contact the Department Chairman so that you may be considered for an internship assignment to be taken during the second semester of your junior or senior year. For further details, see Appendix A: Psychology Department Internship Policy Statement dated February 16, 1987.
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 Business and Management

 Students interested in business-related careers should consider at least six (3 from each group) of the following electives.

Group A                Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
                             Abnormal Psychology (PY 17)
                             Psychology of Learning (PY 26)
                             Social Psychology (PY 42)

 Group B             Organizational Psychology (PY 20)
                            Psychology of Adulthood and Aging (PY 30)
                            Humanistic Psychology (PY 21)
                            Psychometrics (PY 23)
                            Psychology of Addiction and Dependency (PY31)
                            Health Psychology (PY 32)
                            Political Psychology (PY 41)
                            Psychology of Gender (PY 34)

An interdisciplinary certificate program of advanced study in the field of Human Relations and Work is available. This program is jointly offered by the Departments of Business & Economics, Psychology, and Sociology. See Psychology department chairperson for further details.

 Neuroscience/Biopsychology career electives (3 from each group)

Group A               Cognitive Psychology (PY 13)
                            Physiological Psychology (PY 14)
                            History of Psychology (PY 25)
                            Psychology of Learning (PY 26)

Group B               Developmental Psychology (PY 28, 29 or 30)
                            Psychology of Addiction and Dependency (PY31)
                            Health Psychology (PY 32)
                            Sensation and Perception (PY43)

Developmental Psychology: Select at least six; three from each group.

Group A             Cognitive Psychology (PY 13)
                           Physiological Psychology (PY 14)
                           Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
                           Psychology of Learning (PY 26)

Group B             Child Psychology (PY 28)
                          Adolescent Psychology (PY 29)
                          Psychology of Adulthood and Aging (PY 30)
                          Health Psychology (PY 32)
                          Childhood Psychopathology (PY 33)
                          Psychology of Gender (PY 34)

Theology, pre-law, Political Science, Humanities: focus of career

 Group A             Cognitive Psychology (PY 13)
                            Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
                            History of Psychology (PY 25)
                            Social Psychology (PY 42)

Group B               Humanistic Psychology (PY 21)
                            Developmental Psychology (PY 28, 29 or 30)
                            Political Psychology (PY 41)
                            Social Psychology (PY 42)
                            Psychology of the Law (PY 35)

A Career of Teaching at the Secondary School Level:

Group A (Select three of the following courses)

                            Cognitive Psychology (PY 13)
                            Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
                            Psychology of Learning (PY 26)
                            Abnormal Psychology (PY 17)
                            Social Psychology (PY 42)

Group B (Select PY 28, 29 and one other)

                            Child Psychology (PY 28)
                            Adolescent Psychology (PY 29)
                            Humanistic Psychology (PY 21)
                            Psychometrics (PY 23)
                            Psychology of Addiction (PY 31)
                            Health Psychology (PY 32)

Freshman psychology majors interested in becoming secondary school (grades 7-12) teachers should consult with their departmental advisor and apply for Early Field Experience with the Education Department (Chairperson: Joseph Cantanese, extension 7193).

The Education Department offers a state-approved teacher-education program leading to certification to teach in the secondary school. Graduates of the program are served by the Interstate Certification Project, a reciprocal agreement that guarantees initial teacher certification among member states.

The Education Department requires all students in the Teacher Education Program to take ED 15 - Human Growth and Development. Psychology majors may substitute either Psychology 28 or 29 for Ed 15. In addition, during the senior year of the Teacher Education Program, students are required to take Ed 31-32- Supervised Student Teaching and a course in Methods of Teaching. (Ed 31-32 combined is the equivalent of four courses).

Minimum grade point averages of 2.50, both cumulatively and in the Psychology major, must be obtained by the end of the first semester of the senior year in order to qualify for Supervised Teaching in the second semester.
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A psychology major prepares students to think critically about the problems faced and the solutions presented in today's society, thus providing relevant preparation for many careers. The career possibilities in psychology are as diverse as the field. With the B.A. degree and a major in psychology, there are career possibilities in human services (health, education, social welfare, parole, probation, youth, gerontology, substance abuse) and work in such areas as personnel administration and administrative work. Such careers might involve services, research, and/or program planning and development.

In general, the extent of education and training is a major factor in determining how much responsibility a graduate in the field of psychology will have and what opportunities will be open. Many students find that a master's or doctoral degree is necessary to achieve their career goals in psychology. The Department of Psychology at Saint Anselm has an excellent record of providing students with substance and credentials with which to compete successfully for admission to graduate programs.

Graduate study in psychology may terminate with a Master's degree with subsequent employment of an applied nature, or it may lead to a Ph.D. or Psy.D and a professional career in teaching, research, public service, and/or clinical practice.

 After Graduation from Saint Anselm College with a Major in Psychology:

About two thirds of our majors, according to a survey we conducted, go on to graduate studies in psychology (45%) or in other fields (55%) such as business, education, religion, social work, law or health-related professions. Of those in psychology, 63% enter the clinical/counseling field with the remainder going into industrial/organizational (26%) or school psychology (11%).

About a third of our majors did not pursue graduate studies in psychology. Some obtained entry-level psychology-related positions such as; treatment specialist or counselor in a residential mental health facility or a substance abuse center, a human resource associate or personnel specialist in a business, or a teaching position in a secondary school system. Still others entered a wide variety of business-related positions such as management trainee, customer service representative, claims adjuster, stock broker, etc., or in some health related occupation or profession including graduate level training programs in Nursing, Social Work, Occupational Therapy, etc.

Employment Opportunities:

Whether or not you plan to apply to graduate school, consider contacting the Career and Employment Services (CES) on campus early on - at least during the junior year if not earlier. CES offices are located on the top floor of the Cushing Center. Mr. Sam Allen is Director of CES. This office maintains a career library which offers general information on career fields, potential employers, job search strategies, and graduate as well as professional school catalogs and brochures. Each year CES regularly conducts workshops which address such topics as resume writing, job searches, interviewing and career investigation. In addition, the CES maintains contact with a wide variety of companies, corporations and employers which offer informational seminars and on-campus recruitment activities as well as a listing of full-time, part-time and summer employment opportunities.

Graduate School:

If you are interested in graduate work in psychology, talk to members of the department and begin investigating various sources of information about graduate schools. You should know that competition for the limited number of openings in graduate departments of psychology is very keen. Only those with excellent grades are considered. Selection committees are impressed by unique, extra effort experiences such as an internship assignment accompanied by a strong recommendation, undergraduate research projects with a faculty member, tutoring and peer counseling experience, volunteer service in the community, membership and leadership responsibilities in Psychology Club and Psi Chi, an excellent senior research thesis, proctor experience in a dormitory, taking more psychology courses than the minimum required for a major, and/or a year or so of relevant entry level work experience outside of college. Some graduate programs, particularly those in the clinical area, are more interested in students who have spent a year or more working in relevant jobs following graduation. They assume that working will give you both valuable experience and a more realistic (or at least broader) perspective on life than you normally get going to college. If you have been out in the working world and still want to attend graduate school, selection committees believe the chances that you will complete graduate training are high.

In summary, the time for you to begin preparing a strong application for admission to graduate school is during your freshman year. Graduate school selection committees are impressed by excellent grades, strongly positive faculty recommendations, and unique, extra effort experiences.

Practical Suggestions for Applying to Graduate Schools:

An excellent source book to begin with is, "Graduate Study in Psychology", an annual publication of the American Psychological Association. This publication, which is on reserve in the College library, lists all graduate psychology programs in the U.S. and Canada. It provides valuable information regarding application deadlines, how to apply, areas of specialization, financial assistance information, etc.

When you have decided that you would like to apply to graduate school, make a list of a dozen or so graduate schools and programs that interest you. Go over that list with a member of the Department. Seek additional information and discuss your choices with that person. After reducing your list to half a dozen or so schools, either read catalogs for the schools you are interested in if such catalogs are available locally or send away for catalogs and application materials from schools that interest you. After some thought and further consultation, make a final list of four to six or so schools to which you will apply. The list should include "easy, likely, and long-shot" admission possibilities. Send most of your applications to "likely" admission schools.

Admission acceptances are difficult to predict, particularly with the recent cuts in federal spending for education. It is often easier to gain admission to applied programs than to traditional programs. Do not overlook institutions granting the Psy.D. degree. Some applied programs are extremely good; others are weak. If you obtain catalog information about them, members of the faculty can often help you make educated guesses about their quality.

While openings in graduate psychology programs have declined recently, a number of new programs have been established in related areas outside of psychology departments. "Special Education", for example, has grown tremendously and much of the training is psychological in nature. There are also programs in social work (M.S.W.), rehabilitation and training of the handicapped, learning disabilities, vocational rehabilitation, educational counseling, urban planning, computer sciences, organizational development and management sciences, biopsychology, neuropsychology, behavioral medicine, clinical biology, educational and school psychology, and many more.

Academic Advisement Program:

In support of the Psychology Department, Saint Anselm College offers a well-rounded Academic Advisement program which includes academic, personal and career components. Prof. Mark Cronin heads this program. His offices are located on the third floor, Cushing Center.

The Academic Advisement program maintains an up-to-date, comprehensive collection of college catalogs, directories, manuals and publications related to graduate and professional school programs. In addition, this office provides students with information concerning Study Abroad. Prof. Cronin is a gold mine of information regarding career alternatives, status and accessibility of graduate and professional schools, grant and scholarship support, etc.


Recommendations from members of your Department are very important. Our responsibilities as faculty members include writing letters of recommendation to graduate schools and prospective employers. Do not hesitate to ask us to do so. Graduate schools are more likely to respond to specific, concrete information in recommendations. The more data we have, the better. Very general letters are not very helpful. The more faculty research projects and extra effort experiences you become involved in, the easier it is for us to write strong, helpful letters. Help us to get to know you -- your initiative is important, considering the large number of majors in the Department. Working on a faculty research project and/or developing a senior thesis with faculty consultation are among excellent ways of letting us know you.

Letters from faculty members in other departments and the administration are usually less valuable than ones from faculty of the department in the graduate field to which you are applying.

If you are considering applying to graduate school a year or more after you graduate, ask us to write a letter of recommendation now, which we can file for future use. Despite our good intentions and your impressiveness, it is easy to forget those specific details graduate schools value, unless we record them at the time they are fresh.

Letters of recommendation written for your CES (employment) file are often quite different from ones written to graduate schools. We advise you not to have the Career and Employment Services send your file to graduate schools. If you want letters for both employment and graduate school, be sure to so inform us. We will gladly write two different letters, appropriately worded. In fact, many graduate schools have their own peculiar recommendation forms that they want completed. It is frequently more direct to simply forward these forms (with stamped and addressed return envelopes) to each faculty member who is writing recommendations for you.
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Psych Majors -- Class of 200 Say Farewell and Comment on the Senior Thesis

  Last May, our graduating psych majors were asked to write a few words of wisdom to all those psych majors who are still in the process of becoming.  Here are some of their comments.

     "In this department we have professors who will bend over backwards for you.  You will leave here feeling connected and fulfilled because of this quality ... and will be willing to do the same for them."
Kristen Connors

     "As anxious as you may be to get into the 'real world,' value your time here because you can never get it back."
Nic Wildes

     "Get involved.  Speak up.  If you disagree with what a professor says, say so, especially if you explain why you feel that way.  Just because you're a student doesn't mean you can't have a few good ideas.  Even if you're wrong, you're providing the professor a chance to explain further and help everyone have a better understanding.
Cait Devine

     "You have entered a major that is tough and demanding but the rewards and benefits that you will receive are uncomparable and the people that you will meet and work with are unforgetable."
Karen Grant

     "Listen to Finn."
Adam Burpee

     "The psychology department is one of the most challenging as well as empathetic, creative, and dynamic!  Do not panic about the thesis -- hundreds have done it before you; and once you hand it in it will be one of your greatest accomplishments in undergraduate work."
Arianne Lachapelle

     "Have fun and do not lose sight of your goals!"
Kelly Ryan

     "First of all it is a great idea to become excited about your thesis, but do not blow it out of proportion.  Try to keep it simple."
TinaMarie Preve

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Paul E. Finn. (Ph.D., University of Southern Mississippi; Doctoral internship at West Haven-Yale VAMC;  M.A. Ball State University; B.A. Saint Anselm College) is a licensed psychologist with privileges at CMC and Elliot, practicing with populations ranging from children through elderly. He is board member of the NH Board of Mental Health Practice. His specific focus areas include health psychology, anxiety, mood disorders, addictions, health promotion and neuropsychology. He previously taught at Saint Anselm and Albertus Magnus.  He was clinical director of health psychology research at West Haven VAMC, a Yale University teaching and research hospital, and supervised masters and doctoral research and clinical training.  He consults to agencies on research methodology and data analysis. His research interests and activities include neuropsychological correlates of chronic illness, chronic pain, sleep and human performance, reading and intellectual dysfunction, forensic psychology and health psychology.

Maria W. McKenna. (Ph.D., University of New Hampshire, 1989), joined the psychology department in 1990. She taught in the University System of New Hampshire while completing her doctoral research of the effect of readiness programs on children's success in school. Her major area is developmental psychology. Special interests include educational applications,  developmental disabilities, and youth violence.  She has also studied the impact of service learning on college students,and collaborates with other Saint Anselm faculty to measure the contribution of service learning to achievement in college courses.
Note:  Prof. McKenna will be on sabbatical during the Fall 2000 semester.

Elizabeth P. Ossoff. (Ph.D., Tufts University, 1990), has been with the department since the Fall of 1990. She previously was doing research and teaching part-time at Tufts University. Her major area is social psychology with research interests in political psychology, gender issues, psychological effects of the mass media (including internet use), and personality factors in interpersonal relationships.
Note:  Prof. OSsoff  will be on sabbatical during the Spring 2001 semester.

Joseph R. Troisi II. (Ph.D., Experimental Psychology, Temple University, 1990). He taught previously as an instructor and as graduate/teaching assistant during his graduate training at Temple University. Prior to arriving at Saint Anselm, he completed a two year Post-Doctoral fellowship training program in human behavioral pharmacology/substance abuse at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Research interest in this area include the impact of environmental influences on drug tolerance, and drug discrimination. His general research interests are rooted in associative learning and Pavlovian/operant interaction.
Note:  Prof. Troisi  will be on sabbatical during the Fall 2000 semester.

Kathleen A. Flannery. (Ph.D., Brandies University, 1993)  Prior to joining Saint Anselm College in 1995, she taught at Keene State College, Brandeis University, Emerson College, and MGH Institute of Health Professions at Massachusetts General Hospital.  She also spent two years as a Research Assistant Professor at Dartmouth Medical School, where she participated in research utilizing brain imaging techniques to examine memory activation.  Currently, she is studying whether prenatal risk factors contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders.  Dr. Flannery and her students have also conducted research on autobiographical memories, spatial mapping, and creativity.

Scott M. Krauchunas (Ph.D., Kent State University, 1998), joined the psychology department in 1997. His current research interests are in the use of neurotoxicology and behavioral genetics to examine the role specific brain structures have on animal cognition and psychology. He is currently utilizing a technique that examines how different chemicals and genetic manipulations alter brain function to disrupt the mouse's ability to learn a complex series of behavioral responses. He is also working on virtual reality environments (ie.,wayfinding) and visual tracking in dogs and humans.

Laurie C. Geck.  (Ph.D., UCLA, 1995), was Director of Neuropsychological Services in a clinical group practice and an adjunct professor in the Psychology Department before joining the department full time in 1999.  She had previously completed a two-year Postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology at the University of California, Davis.  Her major area is Clinical Psychology.  Research interests are primarily in the areas of neuropsychology and health psychology.

Joanna Gonsalves

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Beebe, K. (Student), Lachappelle, A. (student), & Flannery, K. (April, 1996).  Affect influences accuracy for adult recall for a specific childhood event.  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Bell, J.M. (student) & Troisi, J.R. (March, 1996).  Nicotine promotes weight loss in rats housed in activity wheels and maintained on a restricted feeding schedule.  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Philadelphia, PA.

Colbath, E. (student) & Ossoff, E.P. (1991). Family therapy: An effective treatment modality for juvenile offenders. Paper presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, N.Y.

Dalto, C.A. & Ossoff, E.P. (1993). Cognition, affect and voter concern in reactions to a campaign speech. Paper presentation at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, August

Dalto, C.A., Ossoff, E.P., Pollack, R.D. (1994). Processes underlying reactions to a campaign speech: Cognition, affect, and voter concern. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 701-713.

Evans, S.M., Troisi, J.R., II, & Griffiths, R.R. (1994). Tandospirone and alprazolam: Comparison of behavioral effects and abuse liability in humans. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 271, 683-694.

Finn, P. (1988). Chronic Pain Rehabilitation: A challenge for mental health counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 10, 111-122.

Finn, P.E., Ossoff, E.P., McKenn, M.W. & Duclos, S. (1997, April) The student as teacher:  Use of the general psychology laboratory to integrate learning in the senior capstone course.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Fountain, S. B., Carman, H. M., Krauchunas, S. M., Stempowski, N. K., Benson, A. M., Rowan, J. D., Wallace, D. G. (accepted pending revision). Temporal Organization in Sequential Behavior. In S.B. Fountain, J. H. Danks, M. K. McBeath, and S. E. Hobfoll (Eds.), Animal cognition: Implications for biomedical research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Fountain, S. B., Krauchunas, S. M., Rowan, J. D. Constraints on serial-pattern learning in rodents: Mice fail to integrate phrasing and pattern information. (Submitted for Review).

Geck, L., Mungas, D., Wallace, R., & Reed, B. (February, 1998).  Effects of depression on cognition and independent functioning in Alzheimer's disease.  poster presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the international Neuropsychological Society, Honolulu, HI.

Geck, L.C., Kemeny, M., Bozulich, D., & Fahey, J. (June, 1997).  Disclosure of a bereavement experience with supportive feedback vs. no feedback:  Effects on the immune system in HIV+ men.  Poster presented at the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society Annual Meeting, Boulder, CO.

Geck, L., Hargrave, R., Reed, B., & Mungas, D. (February, 1997).  Affective changes in Alzheimer's disease and ischemic vascular disease.  Poster presented at the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Orlando, FL.

Gorman, P. (student), Briggs, A. (student), & Flannery, K. (April, 1996).  Are dermatoglyphic asymmetries related to cognition, handedness, and skill?  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Associaiton, Washington, D.C.

Griffiths, R.R., Troisi, J.R., II, Silverman, K., & Mumford, G. (1993). Multiple choice procedure: An efficient approach for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behavioral Pharmacology, 4, 3-13.

Kazakis, C., (student) & Finn, P. (1990). Effects of antecedent task performance on creativity. Paper presentation at the New England Psychological Association, Holy Cross, MA.

Lenihan, K.E., Dalton, C.A., & Ossoff, E.P. (1998, February).  Perceived physical attractiveness and perceptions of political candidates.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Liederman, J., Flannery, K.A., & Curley, J. (1997).  Cryptorchidism (undescended testes):  A common malformation associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities.  Child Neuropsychology, 1, 1-13.

Lombardo, K. (student), & Flannery, K. (April, 1996).  Is there any evidence for maturational differences ons ex-biased cognitive outcomes?  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

McKenna, M.W., & Ossoff, E.P. (1998).  Age differences in children's comprehension of a popular television program.  Journal of Child Study, 28 (1), 53-68.

Mohan, C.M. (student), & Troisi, J.R., II (March, 1995).  Caffeine increased directed motor activity in rats maintained on chronic caffeine, in Whyman running wheels.  Poster presented at the Psi Chi Poster Session at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Gordon College, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Ossoff, E.P., Ferland, S. (student), Finn, P. E. (January, 1996).  Self-efficacy and test anxiety in response to graded versus pass/fail course components.  Poster presented at the18th Annual National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology, St. Petersberg, FL

Ossoff, E.P. & Dalto, C.A. (1996).  Media use and political commitment:  The 1992 U.S. presidental election.  Current Psychology, 15 (2), 128-136.

Ossoff, E.P (1998).  Involving the undergraduate in faculty research. Eye on Psi Chi, 2(3), 18-20.

Paglia, A. (student), Snyder, R. (student), McGrail, H. (student), & Flannery, K. (April, 1996).  Do computers help children utilize more effective memory strategies?  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Swap, W.C., Ossoff, E.P. & Rubin, J.Z. (1989). Political preference and perceptions of international terrorism. In J.P. Forgas and J.M. Innes (Ed.) Social Psychology: An International Perspective. North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

Troisi, J.R., II, Critchfield, T.S., & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Buspirone and lorazepam abuse liability in humans: behavioral effects, subjective effects and choice. Behavioral Pharmacology, 4, 217-230.

Troisi, J.R., II, Evans, S.M, & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Human studies of relative abuse liability of benzodiazepines and novel sedative/anxiolytics. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 15, (suppl 1, Pt. A, 108A-109A).

Troisi, J.R., II, Bersh, P.J., Stromberg, M.F., Mauro, B.C., and Whitehouse, W.G. (1991). Stimulus control of immunization against chronic learned helplessness. Animal Learning & Behavior. 19, 88-94.

Troisi, J.R., II, Evans, S.M., & Griffiths, R.R. (1992). Human studies of relative abuse liability of benzodiazepines and novel sedative/anxiolytics. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 15, (Suppl 1, pt.A), 108A - 109A.

Troisi, J.R., II, Critchfield, T.S. & Griffiths, R.R. (1993). Buspirone and lorazepam abuse liability in humans: behavioral effects, subjective effects and choice. Behavioral Pharmacology. 4, 217-230.
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 I. Philosophy of the Program

 The Psychology Department supports the concept of the internship program for selected students. It is our belief that an opportunity for a practical experience in an applied area of psychology as it relates to the academic experience is beneficial to the educational growth of some students. Many areas of behavior which are studied in psychology can best be experienced in a professional setting in the community. This experience offers each student an opportunity to integrate the many areas of psychology they have studied. The student will not only have the opportunity to become aware of concrete, tangible supports of theoretical psychology, but will hopefully have a more realistic setting within which to make a personal decision for a career choice.

 II. Method of Screening Candidates

Student selection is specific in respect to the student being at second semester junior or senior year status. The student must have an overall grade point average and major average of 2.5 and must have the recommendation of the Psychology Department Staff. Student maturity and character are carefully considered in making intern placement. It is the prerogative of the Chairperson to decide who will be chosen for an internship.

 III. Method of Supervision

In respect to supervision there is a requirement that a qualified agency supervisor accept responsibility of supervision. On site visitation and regular communication between a faculty member in respect to activities should help guarantee professional activities as opposed to busy type activities.

 IV. Specific Academic Areas in the Internship Program

The courses in psychology which are most closely related to the internship experiences are:
             Psychology of Personality (PY 16)
            Abnormal Psychology (PY 17)
            Methods of Clinical Psychology (PY 18)
            Organizational Psychology (PY 20)
            Psychometrics (PY 23)
            Life Span Psychology (Child, Adolescent, Adult): PY 28, 29 and 30.
            Health Psychology (PY 32)
            Social Psychology (PY 42)

It is usually required that the student will have completed the academic course work prior to the internship experience. The student is expected to prepare a syllabus of his/her anticipated project which includes interviews with an agency supervisor and the Department Chairman. A major paper is required which will document the internship experience in detail as well as relate the experience to professional literature.

 V. Grading

 The student may apply for two course credits, (PY 80, PY 81). A minimum of twenty hours per week on site at the sponsoring agency is required for two course credits.

 A letter grade will be assigned for each course credit. The grades will be determined in the following manner:

 PY 80 Clinical Practicum:

PY 81 Internship Analysis:

                    1.     Each student will meet with the agency supervisor and will develop a specific syllabus for the internship. This
                            syllabus will be reviewed and graded by the faculty member.

                    2.     Each student will submit an outline for a formal paper. This outline will be graded.

                    3.     A formal paper will be required at the end of the internship. This paper will identify and reflect the specific
                            nature of the experience and will synthesize the academic course work and research to the internship
                            experience. The major part of the grade will come from the paper.

The specific grade values of the above points will be determined at the onset of the internship and will be made known to the student in writing by the faculty advisor.



For Students:

John H. Hummel and B. Christiana Birchak University of Houston-Downtown

Papers for advanced psychology courses necessitate that students learn to identify and report information appropriately. Unfortunately, many college students at both the graduate and undergraduate levels remain unaware of the writing conventions used in different disciplines.

Although English departments increasingly offer guidance in writing across the curriculum, most composition courses retain the Modern Language Association Handbook (Gibaldi & Achteri, 1984) as the guide for preparing formal papers. Therefore, psychology students often encounter difficulties in preparing papers that conform to the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association (4th ed., 1994).

The Publication Manual does not target students as its audience. Instead, it serves as a resource for professionals who desire to publish various technical manuscripts. Thus, students often blame their stylistic errors on the manual's complexity (Hummel, 88).

The present article responds to students' complaints by condensing the specialized writing conventions associated with APA style. A handout was developed by conducting a task analysis of the requirements of the APA style as applied to student papers.

The handout is divided into three areas: Typing instructions, citations used in the paper and reference page construction. Instructions consist of a list of do's and don'ts with examples and referrals to the Publication Manual (1994) where appropriate. Use of standard English by students is assumed.


  1. For details not specifically addressed, refer to chapter 4, pp. 235-257, of the Manual.
  1. Use margins of 1.5 inches (top, bottom and sides).
  2. Each page should contain no more than 25 lines of text with pica type set at 55 characters per line, and elite at 66.
  3. Do not justify lines if using a word processing program.
  4. End each line of text with a complete word (e.g., do not hyphenate words at the end of a sentence).
  5. Double-space all lines including references.
  6. Number all pages starting with the title page.
  7. Page numbers are located in the upper-rightcorner of each page 1.5" from the top and right margins.
  8. The title page should be centered and should contain: The paper's title, the author's name and the author's affiliation.
Example A:
    Term Paper
Training Teachers to Use Behavior Modification
John H. Hummel
PSY 4304, Section 1721
Example B:    Article Summaries/Critiques
Summary of Deitz and Arrington's
"Wittgenstein's Language-games and the Call to Cognition"
John H. Hummel
PSY 4304, Section 1721

  1. Term papers and data-based reports must have an abstract unless otherwise indicated by theprofessor. The abstract is always on a page by itself (page two of the paper). The wordAbstract should be centered at the top of the page. The abstract should be 50 to 150 wordsin length and must be typed as one blocked (no indentation) paragraph.
  2. New paragraphs should be indented five spaces from the left margin.
  3. Most papers will require headings when introducing new topics. For example, the lastsection of a term paper should be its discussion, and would appear in the paper as follows:
  1. Headings should be as brief as possible with the first letter of each word capitalized (Note:The first section of a term paper, the introduction, does not have a heading). There are fivelevels of headings used in APA-style manuscripts. Refer to pp. 242-243, Sections 4.09-4.10, ofthe APA Publication Manual for more detailed directions of headings.
  2. Do not underline words or use single or double quotation marks to provide emphasis.

1.    All works cited, whether through paraphrasing or direct quoting,must be referenced in the text of the paper with one exception; if one issummarizing/critiquing a single article, paraphrasing does not have to be referenced.(Remember to paraphrase accurately.)

2.    Limit your sources to published books, journals and papers presented at conferences. Avoidciting non-copyrighted materials and materials published in newspapers and magazines (e.g.,Psychology Today). Use of such sources may require a different method of both in-textcitations and references, and one must refer to the APA Publication Manual for theappropriate style.

3.    Obtain permission to quote when necessary. For example, APA-copyrighted works requirewritten permission before using a total of over 500 words of anther's work. Try to keepdirect quotes from a single source to less than 500 words.

4.    Complete quotes of 40 words or less should be incorporated within paper's text, begun andended with double quotation (e.g., "") marks, and must be followed by a parentheticalreference citing the author(s), date of publication and the page(s) where the quote is printed.

        A.    The first time a work is quoted or paraphrased, all authors (if 6 or less) are cited inorder, by their surnames in the parenthetical reference. If the work has one or two authors,cite all of them by their surnames each time the work is cited. If the work has three or moreauthors, cite all of them in the first parenthetical reference. Later references willparenthetically cite the first author's surname followed by the expression et al., date andspecific page number(s) if the reference is a direct quote. If the work has more than sixauthors, cite the primary author's surname followed by et al. and list all the authors of thework in the citation on the reference page.

Example A:
    Imbedded Text Reference For Paraphrasing

        Although many behavioral scientists feel that punishment should never be used, Deitz and Hummel (1978) offer two situations where it may be ethical to use the procedure.
Example B:
    Imbedded Text Reference for Paraphrasing
        There are two situations where punishment procedures may be warranted: When all other declaration methods have failed or when the behavior is a clear and present danger to self or others (Deitz & Hummel, 1978).
Example C:
    Imbedded Text Reference For Direct Quotes
        Using punishment to decelerate behavior is problematic. In general, "Punishment should be reserved for only very serious misbehavior and should be used only when other alternatives have been exhausted" (Deitz & Hummel, 1978, p. 81).
Example D:
    Imbedded Text Reference For Direct Quotes
        Using punishment to decelerate behavior is problematic. According to Deitz and Hummel (1978), "Punishment should be reserved for only very serious misbehavior and should be used only when other alternatives have been exhausted" (p. 81).
        B.    Quotes of more than 40 words must be presented: (a) as an indented (5 spaces from the left margin) block; (b) without quotation marks; and (c) followed by a parenthetical reference after the quote's final punctuation mark(s) that always cites the page(s) where the quoted materials are located in the original work.
Example E:
    Direct Quote Longer Than 40 Words
           Punishment is one of the most widely used procedures to decrease behavior in school settings because teachers are not familiar with other deceleration procedures, and because it works quickly and effectively.
Example F    Direct Quote Longer Than 40 Words        Punishment is one of the most widely used procedures to decrease behavior in school settings because teachers are not familiar with other deceleration procedures, and because it works quickly and effectively. Still, Deitz and Hummel (1978) do not advocate reliance on punishment. 5.    Avoid quoting material that either references or quotes a second copy-righted work. If you must, follow the guidelines on pp. 200-201; example # 22 of the APA Publication Manual.

6.    Do not use ellipsis (...) points. These are used when one omits part of an original source (e.g., when not quoting an entire sentence). Quotes out of context can be misinterpreted. If you quote only part of a sentence, follow the directions on p. 97, Section 3.38, of the APA Publication Manual.7.    If possible, do not use footnotes. If you must, refer to p. 163, Section 3.87, of the APA Publication Manual.CONSTRUCTING THE REFERENCES PAGES

    1. The list of references is always started on a new page.
    2. The word References should be centered at the top of the page.
    3. All sources cited in the manuscript must be listed in alphabetical order on the reference page.
    4. References are not bibliographies. Bibliographies refer the interested reader to additional sources for further reading that were not cited in the manuscript through paraphrasing or direct quotation, and are not used in APA-style manuscripts.
    5. All references are typed double-spaced and indented.
  1. The general format for a book reference involves: (a) List all authors (in order in which the names appeared on the original manuscript) by their surname followed by the initials of their first and middle name (if known); (b) the date of publication is presented in parentheses after the listing of authors, and is followed by a period; (c) the title of the book follows the publication date. The entire title is underlined and followed by a period. Only the first word of the title is capitalized with two exceptions: When proper nouns, such as a person's name, are included in the title, or when the book's complete title uses a colon. The first letter of a word following a colon is capitalized. If the book is a second or later edition, after the title,in parentheses without underlining, list the edition using the following type of abbreviations: (2nd ed.). (d) Following the book's title is publication information which includes the city where the book was published and the name of the publisher (city and publisher are separated by a colon). If the name and location of the city is not well known, the city's name may be followed by the abbreviation of the state where the city is located. Information about the publisher should be as brief as possible(avoid using Co.,, Inc., etc.). Appendix 3-A (pp. 179-222) of the APA Publication Manual illustrates 15 variations of book references (second and later editions, edited books, corporate authors, etc.).
Example of a Book Reference        Deitz, S.M., & Hummel, J.H. (1978). Discipline in the schools: A guide to reducing misbehavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
  1. The general format for journal references is: (a) surnames and initials for all authors, separating each with commas. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word and before the surname of the last author; (b) list the date of publication in parentheses after the authors' names, followed by a period; (c) the article title with only the first word capitalized (again, proper nouns such as a person's name or use of a colon in the article title require additional capitalization), followed by a period; (d) title of the journal, underlined, with the first letter of each word of the title capitalized excepting prepositions (e.g., of, and, etc.), followed by a comma; (e) numeric volume number underlined (issue numbers follow the volume number in parentheses and are not underlined), followed by a comma; and (f) the inclusive range of pages where the article is published in the journal without the abbreviation pp. or the word pages.
Example of a Journal Reference        Deitz, S.M., & Arrington, R.L. (1984). Wittgenstein's language-games and the call to cognition. Behaviorism, 12(2), 1-14.
  1. The general format for a conference paper is: (a) authors surnames and initials separated by commas in the order in which they appear on the paper, with the last author's surname preceded by an ampersand (&); (b) year and month of presentation, separated by a comma, in parentheses, followed by a period; (c) title of the paper with only the first letter of the first word of the title capitalized (exceptions include proper names and the first letter of a word following a colon), followed by a period; and (d) a short sentence naming the group to whom the paper was presented and the city and state (abbreviated) in which the meeting was held. Appendix 3-A (pp. 210-211) of the APA Publication Manual illustrates five variations for referencing presentations made at conventions including symposia and posters.
Example of a Reference to a Paper
         Hummel, J.H. & Hall, J.P. (1982, May). Efficiency of handouts on the test performance of college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.

        Skinner, B.F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Gentury-Crofts.

        Zigler, E. & Berman, W. (1983). Discerning the future of early childhood intervention. American Psychologist, 38, 894-906.


    Using this handout alleviates students' fear of following an unfamiliar format.  It enables them to appreciate the interdisciplinary aspect of the writing task and to regard it as merely another problem to be solved.  Such an approach to writing strengthens its usefulness as a learning tool.  While the handout is not a substitute for the APA Manual, it can be used by students (and their teachers) as an inexpensive resource by which students canmore easily learn APA requirements for tyuping, in text citations, and constructing the references page(s).

    The authors wish to thank Samuel M. Deitz, Ph.D. Professor and Chairman, Foundations of Education Department, Georgia State University, for his editorial comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.

    Reprints in a form appropriate for Xerosing and distrubition are available fromthe APS Observer, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV  89557-0062, or from John H. Hummel, Department of Psychology, University of Houston-Downtown, One Main Street, Houston, TX  77002.

  •     Interested readers may also obtain a copy of a multiple-choice test on the handout's content by writing to Dr. Hummel.

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        The entire statement which follows was taken verbatim from: Hock, R.R. (1992). Forty studies that changed psychology. Englewood Cliffs, N.S.: Prentice Hall. (pp ix and x).

            "The American Psychological Association (APA) has issued strict and clear guidelines that researchers must follow when carrying out experiments involving human participants. A portion of the introduction to those guidelines reads as follows:

        In order to adhere to those principles, researchers follow certain basic rules for all studies involving human subjects:
    1. Informed consent. A researcher must explain to potential subjects what the experiment is about and what procedures will be used so that the individual is able to make an informed decision whether to participate. If the person then agrees to participate, this is called "informed consent." There are times, as you will see in this book, when the true purposes of an experiment cannot be revealed because this would alter the behavior of the subjects and contaminate the results. In such cases, when eception is used, a subject still must be given adequate information for informed consent and the portions of the experiment that are hidden must be justifiable based on the importance of the potential findings.
    2. Freedom to withdraw at any time. All human subjects in all research projects must know that they may withdraw freely from the experiment at any time. This may seem an unnecessary rule, since it would seem obvious that any subject who is too uncomfortable with the procedures can simply leave. However, this is not always so straightforward. For example, undergraduate students are often given course credit for participating as subjects in psychological experiments. They may feel that withdrawing will influence the credit they receive and they will not, therefore, feel free to do so. In other cases when subjects are paid to participate, if they are made to feel that their completion of the experiment is a requirement for payment, this could produce an unethical inducement to avoid withdrawing when they wish to do so. To avoid this problem, subjects should be given credit or paid at the beginning of the procedure "just for showing up."
    3. Debriefing and protection from harm. Experimenters have the responsibility to protect their subjects from all physical and psychological harm that might be produced by the research procedures. Most psychological research involves methods that are completely harmless, both during and after the study. However, even seemingly harmless procedures can sometimes produce negative effects such as frustration, embarrassment, or concern. One common safeguard against those effects is the ethical requirement of the debriefing. After subjects have completed an experiment, especially one involving any form of deception, they should be debriefed. During debriefing, the true purpose and goals of the experiment are explained to them and they are given the opportunity to ask any questions about their experiences. If there is any possibility of lingering aftereffects from the experiment, the researchers should provide subjects with their phone numbers for further discussion if necessary.
    4. Confidentiality. All results from subjects in experiments should be kept in complete confidence unless specific agreements have been made with the subjects. This does not mean that results cannot be reported and published, but this is done in such a way the individual data cannot be identified. Often, no identifying information is even acquired from subjects, and all data are combined to arrive at average differences among groups.
    Of course, in research involving children, the same ethical guidelines apply with the children's parents."