History 03
War and Revolution
in the Western World

Professor Hugh Dubrulle
Class Time: Tuesdays and Thursdays 10:00AM-11:15 AM
Classroom: 13 Alumni Hall
Office: 206 Bradley House
Office hours: Tuesdays 2:30PM-4:00PM; Wednesdays 1:00PM-3:00PM
E-mail: hdubrull@anselm.edu
Telephone: (603) 641-7046
website: http://www.anselm.edu/academic/history/homepage.html

Themes of the Course

In her work, On Revolution, Hannah Arendt claimed, "Wars and revolutions . . . have thus far determined the physiognomy of the twentieth century" and that "war and revolution still constitute its two central political issues." During the twentieth century, wars and revolutions became frequent, protracted, and sweeping, rendering the era an "age of extremes," as Eric Hobsbawm put it. War and revolution, however, are not exclusively twentieth-century phenomena; they have a long and interwoven history.

In this course, we will survey the history of war and revolution in the West from about the 16th century onward. We will attempt to define what the words "war" and "revolution" mean, while investigating the relationship between the two. How did war influence revolution and vice versa? How did they both contribute to the world in which we live today?

Required Readings

Michael Howard, War in European History
Richard Preston, Alex Roland, and Sydney Wise, Men in Arms
William Doyle, The French Revolution
Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution
Primary and Secondary Sources
Web Gallery
Web Links


Student Requirements and Assignments

My Policy regarding Academic Honesty

According to the American Historical Association's Statement on the Standards of Professional Conduct, "the expropriation of another author's text, and the presentation of it as one's own, constitutes plagiarism and is a serious violation of the ethics of scholarship." The Statement goes on to assert the following: "Plagiarism includes more subtle and perhaps more pernicious abuses than simply expropriating the exact wording of another author without attribution. Plagiarism also includes the limited borrowing, without attribution, of another person's distinctive and significant research findings, hypotheses, theories, rhetorical strategies, or interpretations, or an extended borrowing even with attribution." So what exactly does plagiarism look like? The Statement continues by stating that "the clearest abuse is the use of another's language without quotation marks and citation. More subtle abuses include the appropriation of concepts, data, or notes all disguised as newly crafted sentences, or reference to a borrowed work in an early note and then extensive further use without attribution." If you would like more information on this topic, please refer to the AHA's statement on plagiarism (http://www. theaha.org/standard_02.htm).

Plagiarism is reprehensible. If I find you have plagiarized another person's work, I will show you no mercy: you can expect anything from a zero on a particular assignment to an F in the class. These penalties serve not only to punish the guilty, but even more important, to deter those who might feel tempted to engage in unethical behavior.

Class Participation (20%)

I will base your class participation grade on the frequency and quality of your contribution to classroom discussion. Positive contributions consist not merely of answering the professor's questions. They also include:

Furthermore, if you are a student, your job consists of learning. I expect you to come to class prepared to learn.

Remember, if you are not attending class, you are not participating.

Quizzes (20%)

In anticipation of each class meeting, I will post three or four questions associated with the reading for that particular day. These questions will appear in the "Food for Thought" section of the website. While you read, pay attention to these questions. At the beginning of every class meeting, I will give you a five-minute open-note quiz on one of the three or four posted questions.

Five minutes will probably not provide you with enough time to scan the reading and write a meaningful answer. I highly recommend that you jot down notes as you read so that you have some sort of prepared answer when you take the quiz.

If you arrive late, you will only have what remains of the five minutes to complete your quiz. If you miss the quiz completely, you will have no opportunity to make it up.

Essays (30%)

During the semester, I will provide more information about both of these assignments.

Turning in Papers: I will not accept papers submitted to me via e-mail. You must give the paper to me in person on the day it is due—before I leave campus.

Late Papers:  Late papers will suffer a penalty of 10% for each day they are late. Thus, a B- paper turned in a day late will become a C- paper. The meter runs on weekends just as on weekdays. If a paper is due on a Friday, it will be one day late on Saturday (10% off), two days late on Sunday (20% off), and three days late on Monday (30% off). The meter also keeps running during holidays and breaks. It is your responsibility to get the paper to me in such a manner that I can verify you completed it by a certain time.

I will not grade late papers until finals week, so not only will you suffer a penalty, you will also remain ignorant of your paper grade until the end of the semester.

Examinations (30%)

Both examinations in this class will consist of a short identification section followed by a series of essays questions.

Everyone must take the examinations at the assigned time—no exceptions.



Tuesday, January 14

Topic of Discussion:

Thursday, January 16

Topic of Discussion:
What is War? What is Revolution?
Excerpts from Carl von Clausewitz, On War (1832)
Excerpts from MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, "Thinking about Revolutions in Warfare" from The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (2001)


Tuesday, January 21

Topic of Discussion:
The Reformation
Excerpts from Eugene Rice, Foundations of Early Modern Europe (1970)

Thursday, January 23

Topic of Discussion:
Late Medieval Warfare and the Military Revolution
Howard, pp. 1-19
Preston, Wise, Roland, pp. 69-103
Web Gallery:
Fortification and the Military Revolution
Tactics of the Military Revolution
Web Link:
Dutch City Maps from Blaeu's Toonneel der Steden


Tuesday, January 28

Topic of Discussion:
The Struggle for Stability
Venetian Ambassador Alvise Contarini Reports on the Causes of the French Civil Wars (1572)
Excerpts from Theodore Raab, The Struggle for Stability in Early Modern Europe (1975)
Web Gallery:
The Struggle for Stability

Thursday, January 30

Topic of Discussion:
The Military Revolution Debate
Michael Roberts, "The Military Revolution, 1560-1660" (1967)
Geoffrey Parker, "The 'Military Revolution, 1560-1660'—A Myth?" (1976)
Clifford Rogers, "The Military Revolution of the Hundred Years War" (1993)
Jeremy Black, "A Military Revolution? A 1660-1792 Perspective" (1995)


Tuesday, February 4

Topic of Discussion:
The Absolutist State and Army
Preston, Wise, Roland, pp. 116-132
Howard, pp. 54-74
Excerpts from Frederick the Great, Works (c. 1770)
Excerpts from Colbert, Instructions for a General Survey of France (1663)
Excerpts from Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture (c. 1670s)
Excerpts from Louis XIV, Memoirs (1670)
Web Gallery:
The Absolutist Army
Absolutist Architecture
Absolutist Portaiture

Thursday, February 6

Topic of Discussion:
The Theory of the Sovereign People and the Constitutionalist State
Excerpts from John Locke, Two Treatises on Government (1690)
Excerpts from John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (1996)


Tuesday, February 11

Topic of Discussion:
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Excerpts from John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (1996)
Excerpts from Kagan, Ozment, Turner, The Western Heritage since 1300 (2001)
René Descartes, Discourse on Method (1637)
Immanuel Kant, "What is Enlightenment?" (1784)
Web Gallery:
Art in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Web Link:
How Flintlock Guns Work (http://www.howstuffworks.com/flintlock.htm)

Thursday, February 13: Essay 1 due

Topic of Discussion:
The American Revolution
Excerpts from Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776)
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Excerpts from Out of Many: A History of the American People (1995)
Preston, Roland, and Wise, pp. 148-156


Tuesday, February 18

Topic of Discussion:
The French Revolution: From the Liberal Revolution to the Radical Revolution
William Doyle, The French Revolution, pp. 12-15, 19-64
Abbé Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? (1788)

Thursday, February 20

Topic of Discussion:
The French Revolution: From the Radical Revolution to the Authoritarian Revolution
William Doyle, The French Revolution, pp. 65-97


Tuesday, February 25

Topic of Discussion:
The Revolutionary Way of War
Preston, Wise, Roland, pp. 157-173
Howard, pp. 75-93

Tuesday, February 27: MIDTERM

March 3-7: Spring Break


Tuesday, March 11

Topic of Discussion:
The Industrial Revolution
Excerpts from Jackson Spielvogel, Western Civilization (2000)
Excerpts from George Sturt, The Wheelwright's Shop (1923)

Thursday, March 13

Topic of Discussion:
Socialism and Marxism
Excerpts from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848)
Karl Marx, "Wage Capital and Labor" (1848)
Excerpts from Robert Heilboner, The Worldly Philosophers (1992)


Tuesday, March 18

Topic of Discussion:
The Revolutions of 1848
Excerpts from John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (1996)
Web Gallery:
Revolution and Art

Thursday, March 20

Topic of Discussion:
The Marriage of State and Nation
Excerpts from John Stuart Mill, "On Nationality" from Considerations on Representative Government (1861)
Excerpts from R.R. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World (1987)


Tuesday, March 25

Topic of Discussion:
Approaching Total War?
Preston, Roland, and Wise, pp. 209-226
Mark Grimsley, "Surviving Military Revolution: The U.S. Civil War" (2001)
Web Gallery:
The Civil War

Thursday, March 27

Topic of Discussion:
Exporting Revolution to the Rest of the World
Douglas Porch, "Imperial Wars: From the Seven Years War to the First World War" from the Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War (1997)
Excerpts from John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (1996)
Web Gallery:


Tuesday, April 1

Topic of Discussion:
The Revolutionary Impact of World War I
Preston, Roland, and Wise, pp. 227-244

Thursday, April 3

Topic of Discussion:
The Bolshevik Revolution
Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, pp. 15-92


Tuesday, April 8

Topic of Discussion:
Stalin's Second Revolution
Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, pp 93-172

Thursday, April 10

Topic of Discussion:
Apogee of the Age of Extremes: World War II as Total War
Preston, Roland, and Wise, pp. 249-291
Excerpts from Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (1925, 1927)
Excerpts from Giulio Douhet, The Command of the Air (1921)
Excerpts from Charles De Gaulle, The Army of the Future (1934)
Excerpts from Brian Bond, War and Society in Europe 1870-1970 (1984)
Web Gallery:
World War II


Tuesday, April 15

Topic of Discussion:
War since 1945
Howard, pp. 136-143
Preston, Wise, Roland, pp. 306-358
Excerpts from Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (1959)
Web Gallery:
War since 1945

Thursday, April 17: Easter Break


Tuesday, April 22: Monday classes meet today

Thursday, April 24: Essay 2 due

Topic of Discussion:
Revolution since 1945
Preston, Wise, Roland, pp. 359-386
Excerpts from Mao Tse-Tung's Works
Selected Works of Che Guevara
Web Gallery:
Revolution since 1945


Tuesday, April 29

Topic of Discussion:
Contemporary Revolutions: The Information Technology Revolution and the Revolution in Military Affairs
Eliot Cohen, "A Revolution in Warfare" (1996)
MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, "The Future Behind Us" (2001)
William Halal, "The Information Technology Revolution" (1992)
Joel Swerdlow, "Information Revolution" (1995)
Peter Drucker, "Beyond the Information Revolution" (1999)