Astronomy and The Scientific Revolution

Ptolemaic Astronomy

History of Physics Lectures from Thales to Einstein, with excellent sections on Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton.

Sections 3, 4, 5, 8 required, especially 3.

The Motion of the Planets (Emory U.): Nice Introductory lecture to the different explanations of planetary motion, with moving diagrams.

Explaining the appearances
Nice account with diagrams from Kuhn’s book by Lyman Baker

Early Cosmology Tutorial
Nice summary with some animated diagrams. Has both Ptolemaic and Copernican systems

Greek and Copernican Astonomy
U. of Minnesota. Nice animated diagrams

Epicycle and deferent java application
Syracuse U. Explore the different orbits possible by different sizes and speeds of systems.

Spirograph applet
Explore the types of constructions used in deferent epicycle models with a simulation of the toy.
Here is another from Dartmouth

Biography Claudius PTOLEMY

Ptolemy and Greek Astronomy


Manuscripts in Greek Astronomy

Java Demonstration of Epicyle and Deferent explanation of planetary motion in Ptolemy


AJ's Cosmic Thinglet: Excellent Diagrams and Demos of Planetary Motion



Copernican Astronomy

Copernicus and the Revolution in Astronomy


Java Demonstration of the Copernican account of the retrograde motion of the Planets


Kepler's laws of Planetary Motion


Copernicus' De Revolutionibus

Copernicus Commentariolus

Nicolaus Copernicus


The Scientific Revolution

Timeline of the Scientific Revolution

The View of Nature of the Scientific Revolution

Galileo Galilei, "Two Kinds of Properties"

Galileo and the Principle of Relativity

Galilean Relativity

Tutorial on Relativity

Inertia and Relativity from Reflections on Relativity (Mathpages)

Galileo Timeline


Einstein's FOREWORD to Galileo

Galileo Home Page

Galileo Room

Absolute and Relative Space, Time, and Motion

Berkeley's Criticism of Newton's Doctrines on Space

Newton's Scholium on Absolute Time.


Texts    General Resources        Discoveries       Astronomy       Scientific Method          Experiments      Science and Religion


Galileo, "Two Kinds of Properties" from the Assayer
Galileo: Selections from Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences
Galileo:Dialogue Concerning The Two Chief World Systems
Selections from Day 2 with annotated outline linked to the text by David Banach
 Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Newton, Rules for Reasoning in Philosophy (from Principia)

General Resources on Galileo

Timeline of The Scientific Revolution

Nova: Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens
PBS series

The Galileo Project
Rice University: The premier Galileo site

Art of Renaissance Science
Excellent Biography of Galileo and accounts of the experiments

Galileo and Einstein Homepage
Excellent resources on Relativity

Galileo’s Daughter
Letters from G.’s daughter that form the basis of Dava Sobel’s bestselling book

The Galileo Room from Florence
A Biography from the same site

Resources on The Starry Messenger and Galileo’s Discoveries

Glossary of terms for The Starry Messenger
By Prof. Anderson, from first lecture of this unit

The Starry Messenger Vocabulary List

Lecture on The Starry Messenger
Russell Macneil

Title page of The Starry Messenger
includes brief description of discoveries

Phases of Venus demonstration from Copernican standpoint
One of the few observational proofs Galileo had available to him

Comparisons of Galileo's Drawings with Photographs
by Tom Pope and Jim Mosher
Great Pictures of Jupiter

Resources on the Copernican System and Cosmology

Explaining the Astronomical Appearances
A comparison of Ptolemy and Copernicus on the motion of the stars and planets

History of Physics Lectures from Thales to Einstein, with excellent sections on Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton.
From the Galileo Einstein Homepage. An Excellent Resource.

The Motion of the Planets
An overview with nice moving diagrams of the retrograde motion

Copernicus and The Revolution in Astronomy
J.C. Evans from George Mason University

Flash Movie of inner planets in orbit
From Galileo-Einstein Site
The Medieval Universe
From a Shakespeare site, excellent accounts of the cultural significance of the astronomical theories

Some Main Points of Aristotle's Thought

Resources on Mechanism and Scientific Method

Galileo and the Origins of the Modern World
David Banach

Outline of Lecture

Powerpoint Presentation

mp3 audio file of lecture


The View of Nature of the Scientific Revolution

History of Science Study Guide

Excellent Resources on the Scientific Revolution

Galileo and the Rise of Mechanism
Fred Wilson, Rochester Institute of Technology

Lecture on Robert Boyle

One of the first proponents of atomic mechanism

Resources on Galileo’s Experiments

Instructions for the Experiments for Seminar 4
Pendulum, Inclined Plane, and Projectile Motion

Inclined Plane applet
Knowmagine site; try different pitches and speeds

Pendulum Applet
Sergey Kiselev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kiselev

Characteristics of Projectile Motion
Many wonderful animations. From The Physics Classroom.

Projectile Motion
Illustration of the vertical and horizontal components of parabolic motion

Projectile Motion Java Applet
Try out different angles and velocities. From Galileo-Einstein project

Parabolic Motion Applet
From the Virtual Physics laboratory; parabolic trajectories and the relation between free fall and projectile motion.

Another Projectile Motion Applet
Indiana State, allows simulation of Galileo’s experiment

Projectile Motion and satellite orbits
Java applet that demonstrates how projectile escapes gravity and goes into orbit

Virtual Laboratory Cannon
Use Galileo’s principles to aim and fire a cannon

Galileo’s Experiments
Pendulum, Inclined Plane, and Free Fall from the PBS site

Galileo’s Inclined Plane Experiment  Galileo’s Pendulum Experiments   Projectile Motion
Rice University Galileo Project site

The Inclined Plane Experiments  Projectile Motion Experiments
Mathematical accounts from the Art of Renaissance Science Page

Galileo’s Notes on Motion
Images of the original Manuscripts

Resources on Science and Religion

A Lexicon for Galileo’s Trial
The important people and terms involved. A Knowmagine site

Faith and Religion
Newman Center at CalTech: Excellent resources; has most of the texts of recent Papal pronouncements on Science

Pope John Paul II, Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences
Pope’s Statement on Science and Religion

Catholic Encyclopedia Article on Galileo
Good account of trial

The closing of the Galileo affair
Abstract of conference paper on the Church’s 1992 reevaluation of Galileo


Science and Technology in the Catholic Catechism


The Galileo Controversy

Catholic Answers site. Not exactly objective.


Vatican Observatory

Vatican Observatory Galileo Case Page

Bibliography and short quote


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