Results

      A univariate between-subjects analysis of variance was conducted for each of the measures to compare the means of the esteem scores between college two-year, college four-year, and honors level classes.  Two of the five esteem measures were statistically significant: Academic Esteem and Problem Solving Esteem.
     Academic esteem, rated on a Likert scale with scores ranging from one to eight, was found to be statistically significant, F (2,31)=4.99, p<. 05.  Follow-up tests were conducted to evaluate where the differences lie using a Tukey HSD.  The results of this test, as well as the means and standard deviations for each group, are reported in Table 1.  There was a significant difference among the means in all three levels of classes (college two-year, college four-year, and honors).  The means for academic esteem based upon track level are also found in Figure 1.

Table 1: Tukey Results for Academic Esteem
 
Track of Class (A)
Track of Class (B) 
 Mean Difference (A-B)
Std. Error
  Sig.
Honors Four-year 1.16 .5432 .015*
Mean-6.71
SD- 0.54
Two-year 1.57 .6392 .050*
Four-year Honors -1.16 .5432 .015*
Mean- 5.09
SD-1.55
Two-year -4.3750E-02 .5835 .997
Two-year Honors -1.57 .6392 .050*
Mean-5.14
SD-1.59
Four-year 4.3750E-02 .5835 .997
    * Indicates significance at the .05 level.

Figure 1: Means of Academic Esteem

    Problem Solving esteem, also rated on a Likert scale with scores between one and eight, was significant, F (2,31)=4.87, p<. 05.  Follow up tests were then conducted to evaluate differences using the Tukey HSD.  The results of this test, as well as the standard deviations and means, are reported in Table 2.  There was a significant difference among all three levels of classes (college two-year, college four-year, and honors).  The means for problem-solving esteem based on track level are also found in Figure 2.

Table 2: Tukey Results for Problem Solving Esteem
 
Track of Class (A)
Track of Class (B)
Mean Difference (A-B)
Std. Error
Sig.
Honors Four-year .2938 .3657 .704
Mean-5.80
SD-0.42
Two-year 1.29 .4304 .015*
Four-year Honors -.2938 .3657 .704
Mean-5.51
SD-0.90
Two-year .9937 .3929 .043*
Two-year Honors -1.29 .4304 .015*
Mean-4.51
SD-1.30
Four-year -.9937 .3929 .043*
    *Indicates significance at the .05 level.

Figure 2: Means for Problem Solving Esteem
 

    Univariate between-subjects analysis of variance was also conducted to compare means between math esteem, general esteem, and verbal esteem with track placement, but no significance was found on these levels between the three groups. For math esteem, of which the mean was 4.915, F (2, 31)=2.381, p=0.109.  Results of the Tukey Post-Hoc test were also inconclusive, resulting in mean difference scores at p=0.122, 1.00, and 0.204.  General esteem also showed non-significant results.  The mean was 6.67, F (2, 31)=0.364, p=0.698.  Tukey tests revealed further inconclusive results with mean differences of p=0.926, 0.891, and 0.675.  Further, Verbal esteem also showed unsupportive results.  With a mean of 5.80, F (2, 31)=0.990, p=0.383.  Post hoc Tukey tests showed the same insignificance with mean differences of p=0.353, 0.679, and 0.924.
    Tests were then conducted to evaluate the differences between level of placement and gender, and then level of placement and self-reported current grade point average.  An independent samples t-test was used to find differences in means between gender and esteem.  No significance was found between the five esteem measures and gender, t(32)=0.322 (math esteem), 1.053 (general esteem), -1.189 (verbal esteem), -0.734 (academic esteem), and 1.381 (problem solving esteem) p=0.75, 0.30, 0.24, 0.47, and 0.18. A graph of the means can be seen in Figure 3. However, there was a significant difference found between the level of placement and the estimated current grade point average.  Means were found to be statistically significant, F (2,23)= 5.52, p<. 05.  Follow up tests were then performed to find exactly where between the levels of placement that the differences lie.  The results of this test, as well as the means and standard deviations, are found in Table 3.  Significance was found between all three levels of placement and current grade point average, which are to be expected.  The means of current grade point average with level of placement are found in Figure 4.

Figure 3: Means for Gender and Esteem

Table 3: Tukey Results for GPA
 
Track of Class (A)
Track of Class (B)
Mean Difference (A-B)
Std. Error
Sig.
Honors Four-year .83818 .25341 .008*
Mean-3.62
SD- 0.32
Two-year .58250 .27126 .102
Four-year Honors -.83818 .25341 .008*
Mean-2.78
SD- 0.73
Two-year -.25568 .24354 .554
Two-year Honors -.58250 .27126 .102
Mean-3.04
SD- 0.24
Four-year .25568 .24354 .554
    *Indiciates significance at the .05 level.

Figure 4: Means for Current GPA


 
 
 
 
 

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